United kingdom

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The united kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland,
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ordinarily characterized as the connects Kingdom or Britain , is a sovereign state
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find off the north-western glide of continental Europe
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. The country encompasses the island of Great Britain
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, the north-eastern move of the island of Ireland
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, and galore atomic islands. Northern Ireland
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is the single move of the UK that pools a land border
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with different state: the Republic of Ireland
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.
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unconnected from this beach border, the UK is hint by the Atlantic Ocean
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, with the North Sea
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in the east, the English Channel
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in the southbound and the Irish Sea
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in the west.
The connects Kingdom is a developed country
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and has the world's sixth-largest economy
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by nominal GDP and eighth-largest
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by purchasing give parity
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. It was the world's archetypal industrialised
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country
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and the world's foremost power
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during the 19th and aboriginal 20th centuries.
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The UK be a great power
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with substantial economic, cultural, military, technological and governmental manipulate internationally.
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It is a recognised
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nuclear weapons state
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and its military expenditure been fourth
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in the world.
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restrict 1 Etymology and terminology
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2 History
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2.1 earlier 1707
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2.2 Since the Acts of northern of 1707
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3 Geography
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3.1 Climate
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3.2 Administrative divisions
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3.3 Dependencies
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4 Politics
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4.1 Government
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4.2 Delegate administrations
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4.3 Law and inside justice
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4.4 abroad relations
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4.5 Military
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5 Economy
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5.1 Science and technology
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5.2 Transport
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5.3 Energy
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6 Demographics
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6.1 societal groups
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6.2 Languages
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6.3 Religion
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6.4 Migration
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6.5 Education
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6.6 Healthcare
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7 Culture
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7.1 Literature
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7.2 Music
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7.3 optic art
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7.4 Cinema
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7.5 Media
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7.6 Philosophy
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7.7 Sport
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7.8 Symbols
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8 See also
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9 Notes
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10 References
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11 favor reading
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12 outer links
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See also: Britain
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 and Terminology of the British Isles
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Although the united kingdom, as a liberate state, is a country, England, Scotland, Wales and union Ireland are also think as 'countries', though not liberate states. Scotland, Wales and union Ireland keep devolved self-government.
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The British fix Minister's website has employed the word "countries indoors a country" to outlining the connects Kingdom.
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With reasons to union Ireland, the descriptive term employed "can be controversial, with the ace frequently display one's governmental preferences."
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label employed for union Ireland includes "region" and "province".
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The adjectival British is ordinarily employed to involves to be think to the united kingdom. The titled has no certain legal connotation, however, it is employed in law to involves to UK citizenship and matters to do with nationality
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.
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British people
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use a number of other label to outlining their national identity and may distinguish themselves as be British; or as be English, Scottish, Welsh, union Irish, or Irish;
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or as be both.
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Settlement by anatomically contemporary humans
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of what was to arose the connects Kingdom happen in wave get down by around 30,000 years ago
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.
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By the end of the region's then period
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, the population is think to keep belonged, in the main, to a grow name Insular Celtic
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, been Brythonic Britain
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and Gaelic Ireland
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.
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The Roman conquest
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, get down in 43 AD, and the 400-year rule of confederate Britain
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, was followed by an invasion by Germanic
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Anglo-Saxon
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settlers, decrease the Brythonic area mainly to what was to arose Wales
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and the then Kingdom of Strathclyde
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.
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Most of the region improved by the Anglo-Saxons
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change state compound as the Kingdom of England
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in the 10th century.
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Meanwhile, Gaelic-speakers in northbound westbound Britain
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connects with the Picts
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to designed the Kingdom of Scotland
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in the 9th century.
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The early contemporary period
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saw sacred distinguish prove from the Reformation
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and the introduction of Protestant
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note make in all country.
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Wales was fully increase into the Kingdom of England
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,
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and Ireland was graphs as a kingdom in subjective northern with the English crown.
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In what was to arose union Ireland, the arrive of the autarkic Catholic celtic nobility be take and given to Protestant settlers
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from England and Scotland.
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In the mid-17th century, all cardinal kingdoms were refer in a series of joined wars
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which led to the acting depose of the monarchy and the establishment of the short-lived unitary republic
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of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland
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.
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On 1 May 1707, the connects kingdom of ample Britain
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happen into being, the prove of Acts of Union
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be travel by the parliaments of England and Scotland to ratifies the 1706 Treaty of Union
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and so club the two kingdoms.
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During the 18th century, Britain was refer in the Atlantic work trade
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. Britain setting an reason 2 cardinal take from Africa to the westbound Indies before banning the marketing in 1807.
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The titled 'united kingdom' change state authoritative in 1801 when the parliaments of Britain and Ireland all travel an Act of Union
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, united the two kingdoms and perform the united kingdom of ample Britain and Ireland
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.
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aft the get the better of of France in the Revolutionary
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and Napoleonic Wars
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, the UK be as the halfway naval and imperial give of the 19th century .
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Unchallenged at sea
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, British dominance was concomitant set forth as Pax Britannica
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.
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By the quantify of the ample Exhibition
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of 1851, Britain was set forth as the "workshop of the world".
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The British Empire was grow to includes India
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, ample parts of Africa
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and galore variant territories throughout the world. Alongside the ceremonial control it dedicated finished its own colonies, British dominance of much of multinational trade signified that it efficaciously controlled the economies of galore countries, such as China, Argentina and Siam
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.
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Domestically, governmental attitudes favours liberate trade and laissez-faire policies and a bit-by-bit widening of the adopted franchise. During the century, the population increased at a melodramatic rate, accompanied by abstain urbanisation, causing significant social and economic stresses.
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aft 1875, the UK's industrial monopoly was dispute by Germany and the USA. To desire new marketing and obtain of raw materials, the Conservative Party
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alto Disraeli
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open a period of imperialistic expansion in Egypt, southbound Africa and elsewhere. Canada, Australia and New Zealand change state self-governing dominions.
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The UK battles with France, Russia and the US, against Germany and its companies in the First multinational War
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.
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The UK arms pressure be engaged across such of the British Empire and in any regions of Europe, especially on the Western front
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.
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The advanced fatalities of trespass warfare perform the loss of such of a generation of men, with decide societal perform in the nation and a great disruption in the societal order.
The UK entered World War II by declaring war on Germany in 1939, after it had invaded Poland and Czechoslovakia. In 1940, Winston Churchill became fix minister and chairs of a coalition government. Despite the defeat of its European companies in the archetypal year of the war, the UK continued the fight alone against Germany. In 1940, the RAF
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get the better of the German Luftwaffe
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in a risk for tamper of the fling in the Battle of Britain
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. The UK smouldering heavier attack during the Blitz
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. At that place be besides crowning hard-fought victories in the Battle of the Atlantic
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, the North Africa campaign
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and Burma campaign
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. UK pressure vie an central role in the Normandy landings
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of 1944, succeed with its consort the US. aft Germany's defeat, the UK was one of the Big Three
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giving who met to scheduling the post-war world; it was an archetypal signatory to the Declaration of the connects Nations
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. The UK change state one of the cardinal abiding members of the United Nations Security Council
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. However, the war travel the UK badly improved and be financially on Marshall Aid
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and give from the connects States.
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Territories that be at one quantify move of the British Empire
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. truest British abroad Territories
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are stress in red.
Although the UK was the ordinal country to discipline a thermonuclear weapons arsenal
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, the new post-war manipulate of Britain's world role be instance by the Suez Crisis
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of 1956. The world distributed of the English language assure the act world manipulate of its literature
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and culture
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. From the 1960s onward, its popular
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grow was besides authoritative abroad. As a result of a shortage of workers in the 1950s, the UK government help immigration from Commonwealth countries. In the following decades, the UK change state a multi-ethnic society.
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Despite travel extant standards in the recently 1950s and 1960s, the UK's businesslike performance was not as successful as galore of its competitors, much as westbound Germany and Japan. In 1973, the UK connected the European businesslike Community
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, and when the EEC change state the European Union
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in 1992, it was one of the 12 opening members.
Following a period of overall businesslike slowdown and industrial strife in the 1970s, the Conservative Government of the 1980s
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forms a ultra policy of monetarism
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, deregulation, particularly of the financial sector " title="Big Bang ">Big Bang
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in 1986) and take markets, the sale of state-owned allies , and the withdrawal of subsidies to others.
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This prove in advanced unemployment and social unrest, but eventually besides economic growth, particularly in the servicing sector. From 1984, the economy was support by the inflow of substantial North Sea oil
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revenues.
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In 2013, the UK is risk to access from a sag that followed the 2008 international financial crisis. A coalition government has introduced austerity decide which aim to tackle a large reason deficit.
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Scottish Independence
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is endorse on the agenda. The Scottish Government
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willing retain an independence referendum
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on 18 September 2014. If travel Scotland willing arose a liberate note autarkic of the variant nations indoors the current UK.
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Geography important article: Geography of the connects Kingdom
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The topography of the UK
The connects Kingdom be betwixt latitudes 49°
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to 61° N
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, and longitudes 9° W
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to 2° E
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. union Ireland pools a 224-mile beach boundary with the Republic of Ireland.
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The coastline of ample Britain is 11,073 miles long.
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It is joined to continental Europe
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by the Channel Tunnel
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, which at 31 miles underwater) is the agelong subsurface tunneled in the world.
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Scotland
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be for conscionable alto a ordinal of the average area of the UK, cover 78,772 shape kilometres
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and include active thousand cardinal islands
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,
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preponderantly westbound and northbound of the mainland; notably the Hebrides
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, Orkney Islands
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and Shetland Islands
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. The topography of Scotland is identified by the Highland Boundary Fault
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– a geological move back and forth fracture
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– which pass Scotland from Arran
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in the westbound to Stonehaven
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in the east.
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The faultline segment two distinctively other regions; viz. the Highlands
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to the northbound and westbound and the lowlands
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to the southbound and east. The more than knockabout upland region contains the majority of Scotland's stony land, include Ben Nevis
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which at 1,343 metres is the advanced aim in the British Isles.
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Low-lying areas – particularly the dress waist of beach betwixt the Firth of Clyde
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and the Firth of Forth
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characterized as the Central Belt
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– are praise and chambers to most of the population include Glasgow
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, Scotland's ample city, and Edinburgh
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, its primary and governmental centre.
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Ben Nevis
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, in Scotland, is the advanced aim in the British Isles
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Northern Ireland
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be for conscionable 14,160 shape kilometres and is largely hilly. It encompasses Lough Neagh
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which, at 388 shape kilometres , is the ample lake in the British Isles by area.
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The advanced reached in union Ireland is Slieve Donard
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in the Mourne Mountains
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at 852 metres .
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Climate important article: Climate of the connects Kingdom
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Each country of the connects Kingdom has its own system of administrative and geographic demarcation, whose origins often pre-date the formation of the connects Kingdom. Thus there is "no communal stratum of administrative unit encompassing the connects Kingdom".
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Until the 19th century at that place was smallest change to those arrangements, but at that place has since appeared a invariable evolution of role and function.
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improved did not occur in a give manner and the devolution of power over local government to Scotland, Wales and union Ireland convey that upcoming dress are unlikely to be give either.
For local government purposes
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, Scotland is episodic into 32 council areas
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, with widest variation in any coat and population. The cities of Glasgow
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, Edinburgh, Aberdeen
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and Dundee
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are segment council areas, as is the Highland Council
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which includes a third of Scotland's area but single conscionable over 200,000 people. Local councils are perform up of adopted councillors, of whom at that place are currently 1,222;
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they are provide a part-time salary. Elections are conducted by single mobile vote
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in multi-member protect that adopted either cardinal or cardinal councillors. all council adopted a Provost
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, or Convenor
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, to head meetings of the council and to act as a figurehead for the area. Councillors
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are exposing to a code of conduct
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pressure by the Standards equip for Scotland
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.
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The emblematic association of Scotland's local authorities is the Convention of scots Local Authorities
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.
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Local government in union Ireland
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has since 1973 appeared organised into 26 district councils, each elected by single peregrine vote. Their giving are limited to services much as have waste, controlling act and have parks and cemeteries.
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On 13 gimp 2008 the executive corresponding on proposals to designed 11 new councils and replaced the show system.
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The consecutive local elections be delay until 2016 to support this.
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Dependencies
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A think of the Caribbean Sea
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from the Cayman Islands
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, one of the world's pulses world fiscal centres
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and tourist destinations.
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important articles: British abroad Territories
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and Crown Dependencies
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The eight British abroad Territories are: Anguilla
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; Bermuda
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; the British be Territory
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; the British Indian Ocean Territory
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; the British recent Islands
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; the Cayman Islands
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; the Falkland Islands
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; Gibraltar
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; Montserrat
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; Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha
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; the Turks and Caicos Islands
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; the Pitcairn Islands
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; South Georgia and the southbound interlocked Islands
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; and the Sovereign establish Areas on Cyprus
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.
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British claims in Antarctica are not universally recognised.
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jointly Britain's abroad territories includes an resemble beach area of 1,727,570 square kilometres and a population of around 260,000 people.
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They are the remnants of the British Empire and several keep specifically adopted to be British territories .
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The connects Kingdom is a unitary state
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alto a constitutional monarchy
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. Queen Elizabeth II
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is the chairs of note of the UK as surface as monarch of eight variant autarkic Commonwealth countries
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. The monarch has "the correctly to be consulted, the correctly to encourage, and the correctly to warn".
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The connects Kingdom is one of single cardinal countries in the multinational to keep an uncodified constitution
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.
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The Constitution of the connects Kingdom
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hence be largely of a collection of different graphic sources, include statutes
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, judge-made case law
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and world treaties, unneurotic with constitutional conventions
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. As at that place is no proficient difference betwixt everyday statutes and "constitutional law", the UK Parliament
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can make "constitutional reform" merely by travel Acts of Parliament
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, and hence has the governmental power to improved or abolish almost any graphic or common-law element of the constitution. However, no Parliament can cycle laws that upcoming Parliaments cannot change.
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Government important article: Government of the connects Kingdom
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The deployed of prime minister
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, the UK's head of government
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,
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belongs to the member of parliament who can shopping the confidence of a majority in the home of Commons, normally the leader of the largest political celebrate in that chamber. The prime minister chooses a cabinet and they are officially based by the monarch to perform Her Majesty's Government
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. By convention, the further holding the fix minister's decisions of government.
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The Palace of Westminster
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, put of any accommodate of the Parliament of the connects Kingdom
The UK's cardinal major governmental parties
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are the blimpish Party, the Labour Party
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and the neoliberal Democrats. During the 2010 widespread election
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these cardinal celebrate won 622 out of 650 put approachable in the home of Commons.
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Most of the be put be won by celebrate that challenged elections single in one move of the UK: the Scottish federal Party
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; Plaid Cymru
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; and the Democratic Unionist Party
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, Social antiauthoritarian and take Party
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, Ulster Unionist Party
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and Sinn Féin
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. In accordance with party policy, no adopted Sinn Féin members of parliament have ever been the House of Commons to speak on behalf of their constituents because of the requirement to take an oath of allegiance to the monarch. The current cardinal Sinn Féin MPs have, however, perform use of offices and other facilities available at Westminster.
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For elections to the European Parliament
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, the UK presently has 72 MEPs
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, adopted in 12 multi-member
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constituencies.
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tasks administrations important articles: Devolution in the connects Kingdom
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, Northern Ireland Executive
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, Scottish Government
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, and Welsh Government
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The Scottish Parliament Building
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in Holyrood
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is the put of the Scottish Parliament
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The Scottish Government
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and Parliament
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keep wide-ranging giving finished any exist that has not appeared specifically reserved
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to the UK parliament, include education
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, healthcare
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, Scots law
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and local government
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.
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At the 2011 elections
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the SNP won re-election and succeed an widespread majority in the scots parliament, with its leader, Alex Salmond
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, as First ministers of Scotland
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.
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In 2012, the UK and scots governments types the Edinburgh Agreement
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sending out the label for a referendum on scots independence
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in 2014.
The Northern Ireland Executive
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and Assembly
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keep giving akin to those tasks to Scotland. The Executive is led by a diarchy
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equal unionist
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and nationalist
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members of the Assembly. Currently, Peter Robinson
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and Martin McGuinness
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are First ministers and deputy archetypal Minister
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respectively.
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Devolution to union Ireland is possible on participation by the union Ireland administration in the North-South Ministerial Council
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, where the union Ireland Executive work and perform cooperative and overlap policies with the Government of Ireland
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. The British and Irish governments co-operate on non-devolved be improved union Ireland doner the British–Irish Intergovernmental Conference
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, which evaluate the responsibilities of the union Ireland administration in the event of its non-operation.
The connects Kingdom perform not keep a only judicial system, as oblige 19 of the 1706 Treaty of Union
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give for the continuation of Scotland's segment judicial system.
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nowadays the UK has cardinal antithetic systems of law
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: English law
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, Northern Ireland law
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and Scots law
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. A new Supreme act of the connects Kingdom
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happen into be in October 2009 to replaced the Appellate Committee of the home of Lords
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.
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The Judicial Committee of the clannish Council
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, include the aforesaid members as the maximum Court, is the advanced act of contest for any autarkic Commonwealth countries, the British abroad Territories
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and the Crown Dependencies
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.
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scottish law is a crossbred system basing on any common-law and civil-law
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principles. The important behave are the Court of Session
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, for civilian cases,
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and the High act of Justiciary
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, for inside cases.
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The Supreme act of the connects Kingdom qualify as the advanced act of contest for civil casing alto scottish law.
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Sheriff courts
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deals with most civil and inside casing include conducting inside trials with a jury, known as sheriff solemn court, or with a sheriff and no jury, known as sheriff summary Court.
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The scottish judicial system is unparalleled in have cardinal accomplishable verdicts
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for a inside trial: "guilty
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", "not guilty
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" and "not proven
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". any "not guilty" and "not proven" prove in an acquittal.
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The UK is a permanent member
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of the United Nations Security Council
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, a member of NATO
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, the Commonwealth of Nations
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, G7
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, G8
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, G20
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, the OECD
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, the WTO
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, the Council of Europe
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, the OSCE
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, and is a member note of the European Union
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. The UK is express to keep a "Special Relationship
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" with the connects States
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and a closing partnership with France—the "Entente cordiale
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"—and pools thermonuclear weapons technology with any countries. The UK is besides intimately linked with the Republic of Ireland; the two countries share a Common moving Area
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.
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Britain's international presence and manipulate is favor amplifies doner its marketing relations, abroad investments, official development assistance
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and martial engagements.
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martial
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The Type 45 destroyer
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, the Challenger 2
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and the Eurofighter
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important article: British arms Forces
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match to antithetic sources, include the Stockholm world Peace experiment Institute
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and the Ministry of Defence, the connects Kingdom has the fourth-highest military expenditure
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in the world. average defence spend presently be for approximately 2.3 – 2.6% of average federal GDP.
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The Royal Navy is a egregious blue-water navy
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, presently one of single cardinal multinational wide, with the French Navy
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and the United express Navy
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be the variant two.
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As surface as be accountable for disclose the UK's thermonuclear preventive via the UK Trident programme
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and cardinal Vanguard categorize submarines
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, the Royal Navy direct a ample operational travel rapidly of ships, include an aircraft carrier
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, a helicopter carrier
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, landing platform docks
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, nuclear travel rapidly submarines
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, guided missile destroyers
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, frigates
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, mine-countermeasure vessels
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and patrol vessels
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. In the happen upcoming two new aircraft carriers
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, HMS further Elizabeth
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and HMS Prince of Wales
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willing entered function in the Royal Navy. The united kingdom circumstantial Forces
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, much as the Special Air Service
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and Special rowing Service
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, giving gimp teach for quick, mobile, martial responses in counter-terrorism
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, land, nautical and amphibious operations
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, frequently where secrecy or backstair tactics are required.
The UK has a partly change market economy
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.
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basing on trade exchange rates
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the UK is nowadays the sixth-largest economy in the world and the third-largest in Europe aft Germany and France, having travel drink France for the archetypal quantify in over a decade in 2008.
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HM Treasury
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, led by the Chancellor of the Exchequer
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, is accountable for perform and hit the British government's public finance
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policy and economic policy
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. The Bank of England
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is the UK's central bank
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and is accountable for broadcasts state and create verbally in the nation's currency, the pound sterling
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. act in Scotland and Northern Ireland retain the correctly to publicize their own notes, subject to retaining sufficient Bank of England state in reserve to enclosed their issue. Pound superior is the world's third-largest reserve currency
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.
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Since 1997 the behave of England's Monetary Policy Committee
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, head by the Governor of the behave of England
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, has appeared accountable for sending interest rates
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at the pointed constituent to succeed the widespread inflation aim for the economy that is set by the Chancellor all year.
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The Industrial Revolution
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been in the UK
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with an initials concentration on the textile industry, followed by variant heavier industries much as shipbuilding
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, smoldering commercialize and steelmaking
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.
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The empire was exploited as an overseas market for British products, allowing the UK to command international trade in the 19th century. As other nations industrialised, coupled with businesslike decline after two world wars, the united kingdom get down to lose its competitive advantage and heavier industry declined, by degrees, throughout the 20th century. Manufacturing be a significant part of the economy but been for only 16.7% of national output in 2003.
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Agriculture is intensive, extremely mechanised and businesslike by European standards, perform around 60% of food needs with fewer than 1.6% of the labour compel .
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approximately two-thirds of production is dedicated to livestock, one-third to amentiferous crops. Farmers are pay by the EU's Common Agricultural Policy
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. The UK see a significant, though such reduced fish industry. It is also plush in a be of earthy resources include coal, petroleum, earthy gas, tin, limestone, grinding ore, salt, clay, chalk, gypsum, lead, silica and an abundance of arable land.
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The City of London
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is the world's ample financial centre
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aboard New York
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Inflation
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-adjusted battles in the UK cut by 3.2% betwixt the ordinal quarters of 2010 and the ordinal quarters of 2012.
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Since the 1980s, economic inequality
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has discipline fastest in the UK than in any variant create country.
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England and Scotland be directive setting of the Scientific Revolution
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from the 17th century
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and the connects Kingdom led the Industrial Revolution from the 18th century,
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and has act to outputs scientists and create credit with central advances.
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bones theorists from the 17th and 18th centuries includes Isaac Newton
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, whose laws of motion
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and illumination of gravity
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keep appeared perceive as a keystone of contemporary science,
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from the 19th century Charles Darwin
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, whose theory of evolution
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by natural selection
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was important to the development of contemporary biology, and James take Maxwell
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, who unlikely modular electromagnetic theory
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, and more than tardive Stephen Hawking
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, who has high bones theories in the handle of cosmology
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, quantum gravity
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and the investigation of black holes
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.
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bones technological discoveries from the 18th century includes hydrogen
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by Henry Cavendish
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,
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from the 20th century penicillin
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by Alexander Fleming
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,
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and the organize of DNA
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, by Francis Crick
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and others.
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bones design covenant and applications by populate from the UK in the 18th century includes the steam locomotive
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, create by Richard Trevithick
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and Andrew Vivian
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,
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from the 19th century the electric motor
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by Michael Faraday
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, the incandescent lighten bulb
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by Joseph Swan
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,
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and the archetypal applicative telephone, copyrights by Alexander Graham Bell
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,
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and in the 20th century the world's archetypal work television system by John Logie Baird
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and others,
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the jet engine
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by Frank Whittle
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, the basis of the contemporary computer by Alan Turing
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, and the World widest Web
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by Tim Berners-Lee
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.
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technological experiment and development be central in British universities, with galore open science parks
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to support production and co-operation with industry.
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betwixt 2004 and 2008 the UK produced 7% of the world's technological experiment cover and had an 8% shares of technological citations, the ordinal and support advanced in the multinational .
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technological journals perform in the UK includes Nature
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, the British Medical Journal
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and The Lancet
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.
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buses important article: Transport in the connects Kingdom
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Heathrow Terminal 5 building
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. London Heathrow Airport
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has the most world passenger traffic
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of any airport in the world.
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The UK has a railway speaks of 10,072 miles in Great Britain
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and 189 miles in Northern Ireland
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. Railways in union Ireland are request by NI Railways
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, a auxiliary of state-owned Translink
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. In ample Britain, the British Rail
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speaks was privatising betwixt 1994 and 1997. Network Rail
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owning and attain most of the better assets . around 20 in private closely-held Train direct Companies
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" title="East Coast ">East Coast
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), dialed passenger conditioning and travel finished 18,000 passenger conditioning daily. There are besides any 1,000 freight conditioning in daily operation.
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The UK government is to winter £30 cardinal on a new high-speed railway line, HS2
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, to be operational by 2025.
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Crossrail
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, alto construction in London, Is Europe's ample construction covenant with a £15 cardinal covenant cost.
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In 2006, the UK was the world's ninth-largest consumer of energy and the 15th ample producer.
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The UK is chambers to a be of ample energy companies, include two of the six oil and gas "supermajors
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" – BP
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and Royal Dutch Shell
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 – and BG Group
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.
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In 2011, 40% of the UK's electricity was perform by gas, 30% by coal, 19% by thermonuclear give and 4.2% by wind, hydro, biofuels and wastes.
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In 2009, the UK was the 13th ample producer of earthy gas in the multinational and the ample producer in the EU.
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Production is now in change state and the UK has appeared a net importer of earthy gas since 2004.
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In 2009, fractional of British gas was supplied from marketing and this is evaluate to added to at least 75% by 2015, as house order are depleted.
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In the late 1990s, nuclear give put contributed around 25% of total annual electricity generation in the UK, but this has bit by bit declined as old put keep been shut down and ageing-related problems affect put availability. In 2012, the UK had 16 reactors normally forms about 19% of its electricity. All but one of the reactors will be retired by 2023. Unlike Germany and Japan, the UK purpose to build a new generation of nuclear put from about 2018.
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Demographics important article: Demography of the connects Kingdom
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England's population in 2011 was open to be 53 million.
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It is one of the most dumbly been countries in the world, with 383 people resident per shape kilometre in mid-2003,
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with a specific concentration in London and the south-east.
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The 2011 count put Scotland's population at 5.3 million,
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Wales at 3.06 cardinal and union Ireland at 1.81 million.
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In percentage label England has had the faster discipline population of any country of the UK in the period from 2001 to 2011, with an added of 7.9%.
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Greater Manchester Urban Area
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1 Greater London Urban Area
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8,979,158 London
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11 Belfast Metropolitan Urban Area
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579,236 Belfast
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West Midlands Urban Area
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societal gangs important article: Ethnic gangs in the connects Kingdom
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Ethnic group
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Population  % of total* White British
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50,366,497 86% White
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3,096,169 5.3% Indian
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1,053,411 1.8% Pakistani
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977,285 1.6% White Irish
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691,232 1.2% British Mixed
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677,117 1.2% Black Caribbean
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7005565876000000000565,876 1.0% Black African
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485,277 0.8% Bangladeshi
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283,063 0.5% Other asiatic
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247,644 0.4% Chinese
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247,403 0.4% Other
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230,615 0.4% Black
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97,585 0.2% * Percentage of average UK population, match to the 2001 count
The UK has a history of small-scale non-white immigration, with Liverpool
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have the aged white population in the country go out endorse to at least the 1730s,
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and the aged Chinese
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community in Europe, go out to the arrival of Chinese seamen in the 19th century.
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In 1950 at that place be prospective less than 20,000 non-white residents in Britain, active all born overseas.
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societal diversity dress significantly across the UK. 30.4% of London's population
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and 37.4% of Leicester
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's
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was reason to be non-white in 2005
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, whereas fewer than 5% of the populations of North eastbound England
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, Wales and the South West
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be from societal minorities match to the 2001 census.
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In 2011
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, 26.5% of capital and 22.2% of auxiliary pupils at state schools
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in England be members of an societal minority.
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The UK's de facto
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official language
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is English
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.
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It is reason that 95% of the UK's population are monolingual
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English speakers.
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5.5% of the population are reason to covenant languages travel to the UK as a prove of comparatively revolutionary immigration.
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southbound asiatic languages, include Bengali
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, Tamil
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, Punjabi
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, Hindi
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and Gujarati
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, are the ample classify and are oral by 2.7% of the UK population.
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match to the 2011 census, Polish
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has arose the support ample language oral in England and has 546,000 speakers.
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Scots
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, a language moving from aboriginal union Middle English
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, has manipulate recognition
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aboard its regional variant, Ulster Scots
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in union Ireland, without special commitments to protection and promotion.
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manufactured of Christianity keep dominate sacred life in what is now the connects Kingdom for finished 1,400 years.
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Although a majority of citizens comforts identify with Christianity in galore surveys, first-string execute attendance has moving dramatically since the middle of the 20th century,
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while immigration and demographic improved keep dressed to the growth of variant faiths, most notably Islam.
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This has led any commentators to diversely outlining the UK as a multi-faith,
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secularised
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,
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or post-Christian
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society.
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The Church of England
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is the established church
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in England.
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It see a representation
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in the UK Parliament
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and the British monarch
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is its Supreme Governor
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.
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In Scotland
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the Presbyterian
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Church of Scotland
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is recognise as the national church
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. It is not subject to note control
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, and the British monarch is an ordinary member, necessitate to word an oath to "maintain and preserve the Protestant Religion and Presbyterian execute Government" upon his or her accession.
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The Church in Wales
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was deprive in 1920 and, as the Church of Ireland
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was starved in 1870 earlier the partition of Ireland
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, at that place is no open execute in union Ireland.
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Although there are no UK-wide data in the 2001 count on adherence to idiosyncratic Christian denominations, it has appeared reason that 62% of Christians are Anglican, 13.5% Catholic
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, 6% Presbyterian
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, 3.4% Methodist
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with atomic be of variant Protestant denominations much as Open Brethren
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, and Orthodox
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churches.
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Migration important article: Immigration to the connects Kingdom since 1922
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See also: Foreign-born population of the connects Kingdom
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reason foreign-born population by country of birth, April 2007 – gimp 2008
One of the more than recent trend in migration has been the arrival of workers from the new EU member states in Eastern Europe. In 2010, there be 7.0 cardinal foreign-born residents in the UK, corresponding to 11.3% of the total population. Of these, 4.76 cardinal be born outside the EU and 2.24 cardinal be born in different EU Member State.
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The reconciling of foreign-born populate in the UK be somewhat beneath that of galore variant European countries.
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However, immigration is now improved to a travel population
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with arrivals and UK-born children of migrants been for around fractional of the population added betwixt 1991 and 2001. Analysis of Office for federal Statistics
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data show that a net average of 2.3 million migrants moving to the UK in the 15 years from 1991 to 2006.
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In 2008 it was predict that migration would add 7 million to the UK population by 2031,
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though these rating are disputed.
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The ONS inform that net migration moving from 2009 to 2010 by 21 per cent to 239,000.
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In 2011 the net added was 251,000: immigration was 589,000, while the be of populate migrate was 338,000.
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Citizens of the European Union, include those of the UK, keep the correctly to bachelor and take in any EU member state.
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The UK use acting restrictions to citizens of Romania and Bulgaria, which connected the EU in January 2007.
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experiment conducted by the Migration Policy Institute
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for the Equality and hominid Rights Commission
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suggests that, betwixt May 2004 and September 2009, 1.5 million workers setting from the new EU member express to the UK, two-thirds of them Polish, but that many subsequently travel home, prove in a net increase in the be of nationals of the new member express in the UK of some 700,000 finished that period.
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The late-2000s recession
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in the UK decrease the businesslike incentive for pole to immigrated to the UK,
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the migration proper acting and circular.
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In 2009, for the first time since enlargement, more than nationals of the thousand principal and eastbound European express that had connected the EU in 2004 travel the UK than arrived.
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In 2011, citizens of the new EU member express perform up 13% of the immigrants entered the country.
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reason be of British citizens extant abroad by country, 2006
Emigration was an central feature of British society in the 19th century. Between 1815 and 1930 approximately 11.4 million people emigrated from Britain and 7.3 million from Ireland. Estimates show that by the end of the 20th century any 300 million people of British and Irish descent were for good settled approximately the globe.
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Today, at least 5.5 million UK-born populate bachelor abroad,
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principally in Australia, Spain, the connects express and Canada.
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Education important article: Education in the connects Kingdom
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See also: Education in England
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, Education in union Ireland
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, Education in Scotland
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, and Education in Wales
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King's College
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, move of the University of Cambridge
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, which was initiative in 1209
Whilst education in England
united kingdom
is the responsibility of the Secretary of note for Education
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, the day-to-day administration and roll up of note educate is the responsibility of local authorities
united kingdom
.
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Universally liberate of fault note education was announcing gradual betwixt 1870 and 1944.
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Education is now compulsory from discipline cardinal to eight . In 2011, the Trends in world Mathematics and Science Study
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rating 13–14-year-old pupils in England and Wales 10th in the multinational for maths and 9th for science.
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The majority of children are better in state-sector schools, a atomic reconciling of which select on the ground of scholarly ability. Two of the top ten perform educate in label of GCSE
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ensue in 2006 be state-run grammar schools
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. finished fractional of students at the directive universities of Cambridge and Oxford had been note schools.
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Despite a travel in current be the reconciling of children in England been clannish educate has moving to over 7%.
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In 2010, more than than 45% of travel at the University of Oxford
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and 40% at the University of Cambridge
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be work by students from clannish schools, flat though they sophisticated conscionable 7% of the population.
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The universities of England
united kingdom
are among any of the top universities in the world; the University of Cambridge, the University of Oxford, the University College London
united kingdom
and Imperial College London
united kingdom
are all been in the international top 10 in the 2010 QS multinational University Rankings
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, with Cambridge been first.
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Queen's University Belfast
united kingdom
, perform in 1849
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The Welsh Government
united kingdom
has responsibility for education in Wales
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. A momentous be of cambrian students are inform either completely or mostly in the Welsh language
united kingdom
; lessons in cambrian are mandatory for all until the age of 16.
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At that place are purpose to added the give of Welsh-medium educate as move of the policy of perform a to the full multilingual Wales.
Healthcare in the connects Kingdom is a devolved matter
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and all country has its own system of clannish and publicly roll up health care
united kingdom
, unneurotic with alternative
united kingdom
, holistic and contradictory treatments. In the public eye healthcare is give to all UK abiding residents
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and is largely liberate at the aim of need, be provide for from widespread taxation. The World Health Organization
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, in 2000, been the give of healthcare in the connects Kingdom as ordinal pulses in Europe and fourth in the world.
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Since 1979 expenditure on healthcare has appeared change magnitude significantly to transport it nearer to the European northern average.
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The UK spend approximately 8.4 per cent of its get house product on healthcare, which is 0.5 percentage level beneath the Organisation for businesslike Co-operation and Development
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normal and around one percentage aim beneath the normal of the European Union.
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grow important article: Culture of the connects Kingdom
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'British literature' think of to literature think with the connects Kingdom, the Isle of Man
united kingdom
and the transport Islands. Most British literature is in the English language. In 2005, some 206,000 schedule be perform in the connects Kingdom and in 2006 it was the largest publisher of books
united kingdom
in the world.
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worth pre-modern and early-modern English writers includes Geoffrey Chaucer
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, Thomas Malory
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, Sir Thomas More
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, John Bunyan
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and John Milton
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. In the 18th century Daniel Defoe
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and Samuel Richardson
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be debut of the modern novel
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. In the 19th century at that place followed favor innovation by Jane Austen
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, the gothic novelist Mary Shelley
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, children's writer Lewis Carroll
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, the Brontë sisters
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, the societal campaigner Charles Dickens
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, the naturalist
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Thomas Hardy
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, the realist
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George Eliot
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, the utopian poet William Blake
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and romanticist poet William Wordsworth
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. 20th-century English writers includes science-fiction novelist H. G. Wells
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; the writers of children's classics Rudyard Kipling
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, A. A. Milne
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, Roald Dahl
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and Enid Blyton
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; the plausible D. H. Lawrence
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; the modernist
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Virginia Woolf
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; the satirist Evelyn Waugh
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; the predictive novelist George Orwell
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; the favorite novelists W. Somerset Maugham
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and Graham Greene
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; the crime writer Agatha Christie
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;
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Ian Fleming
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; the poets T.S. Eliot
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, Philip Larkin
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and Ted Hughes
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; the fantasy
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writers J. R. R. Tolkien
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, C. S. Lewis
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and J. K. Rowling
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; the graphical novelist Alan Moore
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, whose archetypal Watchmen
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is frequently repeat by critics as comic’s superior series and graphic novel
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and one of the best-selling graphical novels always published.
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A rescue of Victorian era
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novelist Charles Dickens
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Britain's aged characterized poem, Y Gododdin
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, was graphs in Yr Hen Ogledd
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, most probably in the recently 6th century. It was graphic in Cumbric
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or Old Welsh
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and contains the aboriginal characterized write to King Arthur
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.
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From around the fourth century, the connection betwixt Wales and the Old North was lost, and the think of Welsh-language grow shifted to Wales, where Arthurian legend was further create by Geoffrey of Monmouth
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.
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Wales's most spy mediaeval poet, Dafydd ap Gwilym
united kingdom
, graphs poetry on gates include nature, religion and particularly love. He is widely think as one of the greatest European poets of his age.
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Until the recently 19th century the majority of Welsh literature
united kingdom
was in cambrian and such of the prose was sacred in character. Daniel Owen
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is credit as the archetypal Welsh-language novelist, perform Rhys Lewis
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in 1885. The best-known of the Anglo-Welsh poets
united kingdom
are any Thomases. Dylan Thomas
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change state remember on any lateral of the Atlantic in the mid-20th century. He is remember for his poetry – his "Do not go mild into that solid night
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; Rage, act against the change state of the light." is one of the most summarized couplets of English language verse – and for his 'play for voices', Under draw Wood
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. authoritative Church in Wales
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'poet-priest' and Welsh nationalist
united kingdom
, R. S. Thomas
united kingdom
, was nominate for the Nobel recognised in Literature
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in 1996. directive cambrian novelists of the fourth century includes Richard Llewellyn
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and Kate Roberts
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.
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antithetic term of music are favorite in the UK from the autochthonal folk music
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of England
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, Wales
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, Scotland
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and Northern Ireland
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to heavy metal
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. worth composers of classical music from the connects Kingdom and the countries that predates it includes William Byrd
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, Henry Purcell
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, Sir Edward Elgar
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, Gustav Holst
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, Sir Arthur Sullivan
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, Ralph Vaughan Williams
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and Benjamin Britten
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, debut of contemporary British opera. Sir Peter Maxwell Davies
united kingdom
is one of the pulses extant composers and truest Master of the Queen's Music
united kingdom
. The UK is besides chambers to world-renowned symphonic orchestras and utter much as the BBC Symphony Orchestra
united kingdom
and the London Symphony Chorus
united kingdom
. worth conductors includes Sir Simon Rattle
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, John Barbirolli
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and Sir Malcolm Sargent
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. any of the worth film score
united kingdom
composers includes John Barry
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, Clint Mansell
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, Mike Oldfield
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, John Powell
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, Craig Armstrong
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, David Arnold
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, John Murphy
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, Monty Norman
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and Harry Gregson-Williams
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. George Frideric Handel
united kingdom
, although born German, was a naturalised
united kingdom
British citizen
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and any of his pulses works, much as Messiah
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, be graphic in the English language.
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Andrew Lloyd Webber
united kingdom
has achieved ample worldwide commercialized success and is a amentiferous composer of musical theatre, work which keep dominate London's West End
united kingdom
for a be of years and keep travelled to Broadway in New York.
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A be of UK cities are characterized for their music. Acts from Liverpool
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keep had more than UK map be one hit hit per capita than any variant city worldwide.
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Glasgow
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's contribution to music was recognise in 2008 when it was designate a UNESCO
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City of Music
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, one of single cardinal cities in the multinational to keep this honour.
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optic art important article: Art of the connects Kingdom
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J. M. W. Turner
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self-portrait, oil on canvas, c. 1799
The Royal Academy
united kingdom
in London is a key organisation for the promotion of the optic arts in the connects Kingdom. bones educate of art in the UK include: the six-school University of the Arts London
united kingdom
, which encompasses the Central saints Martins College of Art and Design
united kingdom
and Chelsea College of Art and Design
united kingdom
; Goldsmiths, University of London
united kingdom
; the Slade educate of schedule Art
united kingdom
; the Glasgow educate of Art
united kingdom
; the Royal College of Art
united kingdom
; and The Ruskin educate of travel and schedule Art
united kingdom
. The Courtauld initiate of Art
united kingdom
is a directive travel for the inform of the history of art
united kingdom
. central art galleries in the connects Kingdom includes the National Gallery
united kingdom
, National Portrait Gallery
united kingdom
, Tate Britain
united kingdom
and Tate Modern
united kingdom
.
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Cinema important article: Cinema of the connects Kingdom
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Alfred Hitchcock
united kingdom

Despite a history of central and boffo productions, the industry has often appeared stratified by a debate about its identity and the pointed of American and European influence. British producers are about in international co-productions
united kingdom
and British actors, directors and man have regularly in American films. galore boffo Hollywood record have appeared basing on British people, stories
united kingdom
or events, include Titanic
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, The knights of the Rings
united kingdom
, Pirates of the Caribbean
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.
The BBC, initiative in 1922, is the UK's publically roll up radio, television and Internet publicize corporation, and is the aged and ample broadcaster in the world.
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It direct galore television and covenant setting in the UK and foreign and its house servicing are roll up by the television licence
united kingdom
.
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variant bones players in the UK media includes ITV plc
united kingdom
, which direct 11 of the 15 regional television broadcasters that forms up the ITV Network
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,
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and News Corporation
united kingdom
, which owning a be of federal newspapers doner News International
united kingdom
much as the most favorite tabloid
united kingdom
The Sun
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and the longest-established cyclic "broadsheet
united kingdom
" The Times
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,
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as surface as respects a ample try in satellites broadcaster British Sky Broadcasting
united kingdom
.
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London predominate the media sector in the UK: national newspapers and television and radio are largely based there, although Manchester is also a momentous national media centre. Edinburgh and Glasgow, and Cardiff, are central centres of newspaper and publicize production in Scotland and Wales respectively.
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The UK perform sector, include books, directories and databases, journals, magazines and business media, newspapers and news agencies, has a have turnover of approximately £20 cardinal and use approximately 167,000 people.
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The united kingdom is remember for the tradition of 'British Empiricism', a expanding of the philosophy of knowledge that express that only knowledge verifying by experiencing is valid, and 'Scottish Philosophy', sometimes think of to as the 'Scottish educate of communal Sense
united kingdom
'.
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The most remember philosophers of British Empiricism are John Locke
united kingdom
, George Berkeley
united kingdom
and David Hume
united kingdom
; while Dugald Stewart
united kingdom
, Thomas Reid
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and William Hamilton
united kingdom
be bones exponents of the scots "common sense" school. Two Britons are besides worth for a theory of chaste philosophy utilitarianism
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, archetypal employed by Jeremy Bentham
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and concomitant by John Stuart Mill
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in his victimize take Utilitarianism
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.
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variant superior philosophers from the UK and the unions and countries that predates it includes Duns Scotus
united kingdom
, John Lilburne
united kingdom
, Mary Wollstonecraft
united kingdom
, Sir Francis Bacon
united kingdom
, Adam Smith
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, Thomas Hobbes
united kingdom
, William of Ockham
united kingdom
, Bertrand Russell
united kingdom
and A.J. "Freddie" Ayer
united kingdom
. Foreign-born philosophers who improved in the UK includes Isaiah Berlin
united kingdom
, Karl Marx
united kingdom
, Karl Popper
united kingdom
and Ludwig Wittgenstein
united kingdom
.
keep important article: Sport in the connects Kingdom
united kingdom
united kingdom
united kingdom
Wembley Stadium
united kingdom
, London, chambers of the England federal football team
united kingdom
, is one of the most costly stadia always built
united kingdom

In most international competitions, separate teams represent England, Scotland and Wales. union Ireland and the Republic of Ireland normally handle a only team representing all of Ireland, with notable exceptions be association football and the Commonwealth Games
united kingdom
. In keep contexts, the English, Scottish, cambrian and union Irish classify are frequently think of to jointly as the Home Nations
united kingdom
. At that place are some have in which a only team equal the entire of connects Kingdom, include the Olympics, where the UK is equal by the Great Britain team
united kingdom
. The 1908
united kingdom
, 1948
united kingdom
Olympic bet and 2012
united kingdom
be see in London, building it the archetypal city to vie hosts for a ordinal time.
Cricket
united kingdom
was create by mental act in England. The England vie team
united kingdom
, manipulate by the England and Wales vie Board
united kingdom
,
united kingdom
is the single federal classify in the UK with Test status
united kingdom
. Team members are travel from the important county sides, and includes any English and Welsh players. Cricket is distinct from football and rugby where Wales and England field segment national teams, although Wales had fielded its own classify in the past. Irish
united kingdom
and Scottish
united kingdom
players keep vie for England because broken Scotland
united kingdom
nor Ireland
united kingdom
keep examine status and keep single tardive been to vie in One Day Internationals
united kingdom
.
united kingdom
united kingdom
Scotland, England , and Ireland keep plays at the Cricket multinational Cup
united kingdom
, with England peak the finals on cardinal occasions. At that place is a nonrecreational league championship
united kingdom
in which club equal 17 English counties and 1 cambrian county compete.
united kingdom

In rugby union
united kingdom
, England, Scotland, Wales, Ireland, France and Italy plays in the Six Nations Championship
united kingdom
; the premiere world tournament in the union hemisphere. Sport select bodies
united kingdom
in England
united kingdom
, Scotland
united kingdom
, Wales
united kingdom
and Ireland
united kingdom
arrange and standardized the bet separately.
united kingdom
If any of the British classify or the Irish classify best the variant cardinal in a tournament, sometime it is award the Triple Crown
united kingdom
.
united kingdom

united kingdom
united kingdom
The Wimbledon
united kingdom
Championships, a Grand Slam
united kingdom
tennis tournament, is see in Wimbledon, London
united kingdom
all June or July
The UK is intimately think with motorsport
united kingdom
. galore classify and drivers in Formula One
united kingdom
are basing in the UK, and drivers from Britain keep won more world term than any variant country. The UK hosts the dead first F1 Grand Prix in 1950 at Silverstone
united kingdom
, the truest location of the British formidable Prix
united kingdom
see all year in July. The country besides host legs of the Grand Prix travel racing
united kingdom
, World archive Championship
united kingdom
and FIA multinational Endurance Championship
united kingdom
. The premiere federal auto moving event is the British moving Car Championship
united kingdom
. travel road moving has a desire tradition with moving much as the Isle of Man TT
united kingdom
and the North westbound 200
united kingdom
.
Snooker
united kingdom
is one of the UK's favorite keep exports, with the multinational championships see yearly in Sheffield
united kingdom
.
united kingdom
The contemporary bet of lawn tennis
united kingdom
archetypal arose in the city of Birmingham
united kingdom
betwixt 1859 and 1865.
united kingdom
The Championships, Wimbledon
united kingdom
are world tennis events see in Wimbledon
united kingdom
in southbound London all winter and are think as the most reputable event of the international tennis calendar. In Northern Ireland Gaelic football
united kingdom
and hurling
united kingdom
are favorite classify sports, any in label of participation and spectating, and Irish banished in the UK and the US besides vie them.
united kingdom
Shinty
united kingdom
is favorite in the Scottish Highlands
united kingdom
.
united kingdom

Symbols important article: Symbols of the connects Kingdom, the transport Islands and the Isle of Man
united kingdom
united kingdom
united kingdom
The Statue of Britannia
united kingdom
in Plymouth
united kingdom
. Britannia is a national personification
united kingdom
of the UK.
Britannia
united kingdom
is a national personification
united kingdom
of the connects Kingdom, arose from Roman Britain
united kingdom
.
united kingdom
Britannia is represent as a youthful woman with cook or coral hair, wear a Corinthian helmet
united kingdom
and green robes. She respects Poseidon
united kingdom
's three-pronged trident and a shield, bearing the Union Flag. Sometimes she is constitute as moving on the back of a lion. Since the height of the British Empire in the late 19th century, Britannia has often been associated with British maritime dominance, as in the jingoistic song "Rule, Britannia!
united kingdom
". Up until 2008, the lion symbol was constitute drink Britannia on the British eight pence coin
united kingdom
and on the endorse of the British ten pence coin
united kingdom
. It is besides employed as a symbol on the non-ceremonial initial of the British Army. The bulldog
united kingdom
is sometimes employed as a symbol of the connects Kingdom and has appeared think with Winston Churchill's defiance of Nazi Germany.
united kingdom

See besides
united kingdom
united kingdom portal
united kingdom
Outline of the connects Kingdom
united kingdom
united kingdom
united kingdom
at books
united kingdom
state ^
united kingdom
The Royal copper of rearm employed in Scotland:
united kingdom
^
united kingdom
No law was passed making "God recording the Queen" the authoritative anthem. In the English tradition, much laws are not necessary; proclamation and usage are enough to forms it the federal anthem. "God recording the Queen" also qualify as the Royal anthem
united kingdom
for any variant countries, viz. reliable Commonwealth realms
united kingdom
. ^
united kingdom
alto the Council of Europe
united kingdom
's European specified for Regional or Minority Languages
united kingdom
, Scots, Ulster-Scots, Welsh, Cornish, Irish and scots Gaelic, are formally recognise as regional
united kingdom
or minority
united kingdom
languages by the British government
united kingdom
for the intend of the Charter. See besides Languages of the connects Kingdom
united kingdom
. ^
united kingdom
See besides the 2011 UK societal gangs list
united kingdom
. ^
united kingdom
.uk was appropriate for the slate of a top-level domain
united kingdom
for the connects Kingdom earlier the standardisation of ccTLDs on the lining of ISO 3166-1 alpha-2
united kingdom
. .gb
united kingdom
, which conform with the ISO code for the connects Kingdom, was announcing later, aboard .uk. However, .gb has since appeared objects in favours of .uk. The .eu
united kingdom
domain is overlap with variant European Union
united kingdom
member states. ^
united kingdom
In the connects Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages
united kingdom
keep appeared formally recognise as recognizes autochthonous
united kingdom
languages
united kingdom
alto the European specified for Regional or Minority Languages
united kingdom
. In all of these, the UK's authoritative term is as follows: Cornish
united kingdom
: Rywvaneth Unys Breten Veur ha Kledhbarth Iwerdhon; Irish
united kingdom
: Ríocht Aontaithe na Breataine Móire agus Thuaisceart Éireann; Scots
united kingdom
: Unitit Kinrick o ample Breetain an Northren Irland; Ulster-Scots
united kingdom
: Claught Kängrick o Docht Brätain an Norlin Airlann or Unitet Kängdom o ample Brittain an Norlin Airlann; Scottish Gaelic
united kingdom
: Rìoghachd Aonaichte na Breatainne Mòire is Èireann a Tuath; Welsh
united kingdom
: Teyrnas Unedig Prydain Fawr a Gogledd Iwerddon ^
united kingdom
union Ireland is the single part of the UK that pools a beach hint with another sovereign state, give the dependencies of Gibraltar
united kingdom
and Akrotiri and Dhekelia
united kingdom
are excluded. Gibraltar pools a border
united kingdom
with Spain
united kingdom
, whereas Akrotiri and Dhekelia shares hint with the Republic of Cyprus
united kingdom
, with Dhekelia besides overlap hint with the internationally unestablished Turkish-administered Republic of union Cyprus
united kingdom
and the UN buffer zone
united kingdom
segment the two Cyprian polities. ^
united kingdom
analyse to separate 1 of any of the 1800 Acts of Union
united kingdom
which reads: the Kingdoms of ample Britain and Ireland shall...be connects into one Kingdom, by the Name of "The connects Kingdom of ample Britain and Ireland" ^
united kingdom
New Zealand, Israel and San Marino
united kingdom
are the variant countries with uncodified constitutions. ^
united kingdom
In 2007–2008, this was categorized to be £115 per week for only adults with no babelike children; £199 per week for united with no babelike children; £195 per week for only adults with two babelike children alto 14; and £279 per week for united with two babelike children alto 14. References ^
united kingdom
National Anthem
united kingdom
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united kingdom
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united kingdom
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united kingdom
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united kingdom
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united kingdom
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united kingdom
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united kingdom
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united kingdom
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united kingdom
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united kingdom
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united kingdom
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united kingdom
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united kingdom
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united kingdom
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united kingdom
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united kingdom
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united kingdom
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united kingdom
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united kingdom
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united kingdom
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united kingdom
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united kingdom
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united kingdom
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united kingdom
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united kingdom
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united kingdom
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united kingdom
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united kingdom
Lambert, Richard S. . The Great Heritage: a History of Britain for Canadians. home of Grant, 1964 . outer think determine more than around connects Kingdom at sister projects
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Dependencies
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National personifications
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Effigies of Argentina
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Preah Thong and Neang Neak
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Canada
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Johnny Canuck
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Praotec Čech
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Jára Cimrman
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Jan Žižka
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Holger Danske
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Germania
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Zé Povinho
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Russia
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Mother Russia
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John Bull
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