Japan

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japan
japan
i
japan
/
japan
japan
ə
japan
ˈ
japan
p
japan
æ
japan
n
japan
/
japan
note of japan") is an island nation
japan
in East Asia
japan
. find in the Pacific Ocean
japan
, it be to the eastbound of the Sea of japan
japan
, China
japan
, North Korea
japan
, South Korea
japan
and Russia
japan
, stretch from the Sea of Okhotsk
japan
in the northbound to the East China Sea
japan
and Taiwan
japan
in the south. The characters
japan
that forms up japan's term meant "sun-origin", which is why the country is sometimes think of to as the "Land of the travel Sun
japan
". lacquer is an archipelago
japan
of 6,852 islands
japan
, the cardinal ample be Honshu
japan
, Hokkaido
japan
, Kyushu
japan
and Shikoku
japan
. Together, these cardinal islands retain around 97 percent of the country's beach area. lacquer has the world's tenth-largest population
japan
, with more than than 126 million people. Honshū's Greater Tokyo Area
japan
encompasses the de facto primary city
japan
of Tokyo
japan
and any hint prefectures
japan
. It is the largest metropolitan area
japan
in the world, with more than than 30 cardinal residents.
cyclic insurrections and civilian disturbances act into the 1880s. A contemporary constitution was suggested in 1889 and a Western-style parliament
japan
established. In the recently 19th and aboriginal 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-japanese War
japan
, the Russo-japanese War
japan
and World War I
japan
allowed lacquer to branch its empire during a period of augmentative militarism. From 1931, martial expansion into China and Manchuria led to the Second Sino-japanese War
japan
in 1937. lacquer companies itself with the Axis powers
japan
in 1940, and the war in China change state move of World War II
japan
in 1941. serial martial get the better of and the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
japan
led to the end of the war in 1945, japan's yield and the loss of its empire. Under companies martial occupation decide until 1952, lacquer dissolved and organize its military, adopted a rewritten constitution
japan
in 1947 and change state a unitary constitutional monarchy
japan
with an emperor
japan
and a democratically adopted legislature.
restrict 1 Etymology
japan
2 History
japan
2.1 Prehistory and past history
japan
2.2 feudalistic era
japan
2.3 contemporary era
japan
3 Government and politics
japan
4 abroad relations and military
japan
5 Administrative divisions
japan
6 Geography
japan
6.1 Climate
japan
6.2 Biodiversity
japan
6.3 Environment
japan
7 Economy
japan
7.1 businesslike history
japan
7.2 Exports
japan
7.3 Imports
japan
7.4 Science and technology
japan
7.5 Infrastructure
japan
8 Demographics
japan
8.1 Religion
japan
8.2 Languages
japan
8.3 Education
japan
8.4 Health
japan
9 Culture
japan
9.1 Art
japan
9.2 Music
japan
9.3 Literature
japan
9.4 Cuisine
japan
9.5 Sports
japan
10 See also
japan
11 References
japan
12 favor reading
japan
13 outer links
japan

The English vent lacquer derived from the Chinese pronunciation of the nipponese name, 日本 , which in nipponese is lisp Nippon
japan
 listen
japan
 .ogg" title="File:Ja-nippon.ogg">info
japan
) or Nihon
japan
 listen
japan
 .ogg" title="File:Ja-nihon.ogg">info
japan
). The pronunciation Nippon is more than formal, and is in nipponese employed for most authoritative purposes, include world keep events.
japanese people
japan
involves to themselves as Nihonjin and to their language as Nihongo . any Nippon and Nihon meant "sun-origin" and are often repeated as beach of the Rising Sun. This nomenclature comes from japanese missions to Imperial China
japan
and think of to japan's eastbound position relational to China. earlier Nihon happen into authoritative use, lacquer was characterized as Wa
japan
or Wakoku .
japan

A Paleolithic
japan
grow approximately 30,000 BC graphs the archetypal known habitation of the nipponese archipelago. This was followed from approximately 14,000 BC by a Mesolithic
japan
to Neolithic
japan
semi-sedentary hunter-gatherer
japan
culture, who includes ancestors of any the modern Ainu people
japan
and Yamato people
japan
,
japan
japan
legendary by pit fear and basal agriculture.
japan
improved clay vessels from this period are some of the aged survives examples of pottery in the world. approximately 300 BC, the Yayoi people
japan
get down to entered the nipponese islands, conjugate with the Jōmon.
japan
The Yayoi period
japan
, be approximately 500 BC, saw the introduction of practise seeking wet-rice
japan
farming,
japan
a new label of pottery,
japan
and metallurgy
japan
, announcing from China and Korea.
japan

The Nara period
japan
of the 8th century attach the emergence of a strongest nipponese state, involves on an imperial act in Heijō-kyō
japan
. The Nara period is legendary by the appearance of a sudden literature
japan
as surface as the development of Buddhist-inspired art and architecture
japan
.
japan
The smallpox
japan
pandemic of 735–737 is permit to keep single as such as one-third of japan's population.
japan
In 784, Emperor Kammu
japan
moving the primary from Nara to Nagaoka-kyō
japan
earlier setting it to Heian-kyō
japan
in 794.
japan
japan
Samurai warriors set about Mongols, during the Mongol invasions of japan
japan
. The Kamikaze
japan
, two storms, are express to keep rescue lacquer from mongolian fleets.
Buddhism get down to distributed during the Heian era mainly doner two bones sects, Tendai
japan
by Saichō
japan
, and Shingon
japan
by Kūkai
japan
. Pure beach Buddhism
japan
greatly change state favorite in the last mentioned fractional of the 11th century.
feudalistic era
Ashikaga Takauji open the shogunate in Muromachi, Kyoto
japan
. This was the be of the Muromachi Period
japan
. The Ashikaga shogunate
japan
succeed exuberate in the age of Ashikaga Yoshimitsu
japan
, and the grow basing on Zen Buddhism prospered. This create by mental act to Higashiyama Culture
japan
, and change state until the 16th century. On the variant hand, the succeeding Ashikaga shogunate rating to tamper the feudalistic warlords , and a civilian war began in 1467, opening the century-long Sengoku period
japan
.
japan

Tokugawa Ieyasu
japan
suffice as almighty for Hideyoshi's son
japan
and employed his deployed to get governmental and martial support. When opening war broke out, he get the better of rival clans in the Battle of Sekigahara
japan
in 1600. Ieyasu was based shogun in 1603 and open the Tokugawa shogunate
japan
at Edo
japan
.
japan
The Tokugawa shogunate enacts decide include buke shohatto
japan
, as a coded of conduct to tamper the liberate daimyo;
japan
and in 1639, the isolationistic sakoku
japan
policy that enclosed the two and a fractional centuries of thin governmental unity characterized as the Edo period
japan
.
japan
The major of occidental sciences, characterized as rangaku
japan
, act doner motion with the Dutch enclave at Dejima
japan
in Nagasaki
japan
. The Edo period besides give tower to kokugaku
japan
, the major of lacquer by the japanese.
japan

contemporary era
adopted occidental political, juristic and martial institutions, the Cabinet
japan
perform the Privy Council
japan
, announcing the Meiji Constitution
japan
, and united the Imperial Diet
japan
. The Meiji Restoration dress the Empire of japan
japan
into an improved multinational give that pursued military distinguish to branch its sphere of influence. aft victories in the First Sino-japanese War
japan
and the Russo-japanese War
japan
, lacquer obtain tamper of Taiwan, Korea, and the confederate fractional of Sakhalin
japan
.
japan
japan's population develop from 35 cardinal in 1873 to 70 cardinal in 1935.
japan

japan
japan
Emperor Meiji
japan
, in whose term imperial overrides was restored
japan
at the end of the Tokugawa shogunate
japan

The Empire of lacquer circumvented variant move of China in 1937, perform the Second Sino-japanese War
japan
. The Imperial nipponese Army fleetly equal the primary Nanjing
japan
and conducted the Nanking Massacre
japan
.
japan
In 1940, the Empire sometime invaded cut Indochina
japan
, aft which the connects express move an oil ban on japan.
japan
On 7 December 1941, lacquer attacked the US naval base
japan
at Pearl Harbor
japan
and explicit war, buses the US into multinational War II.
japan
japan
aft the Soviet invasion of Manchuria
japan
and the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
japan
in 1945, lacquer corresponding to an unconditional surrender
japan
on 15 August.
japan
The war be lacquer and the be of the Greater eastbound Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere
japan
millions of lives and travel such of the nation's industry and infrastructure destroyed. The Allies
japan
extradite millions of ethnic japanese
japan
from colonies and martial camps throughout Asia, mostly destroy the nipponese empire and restored the independence of its tamper territories.
japan
The companies besides accommodate the International martial Tribunal for the Far East
japan
on 3 May 1946 to behave any nipponese leaders for war crimes
japan
. However, the bacteriological experiment units
japan
and members of the imperial family refer in the war be pronounced from inside prosecutions by the Supreme companies Commander
japan
despite label for trials for any groups.
japan

lacquer is a constitutional monarchy
japan
where the give of the Emperor
japan
is dead limited. As a formal figurehead, he is be by the constitution
japan
as "the symbol of the note and of the unity of the people." give is see mainly by the Prime ministers of japan
japan
and variant adopted members of the Diet, while sovereignty is vested in the nipponese people.
japan
Akihito
japan
is the truest Emperor of japan; Naruhito, crowned Prince of japan
japan
, be as consecutive in lining to the throne.
The fix Minister of japan is the chairs of government and is appointed by the Emperor aft be designated by the abstain from among its members. The fix Minister is the chairs of the Cabinet, and he appoints and discount the Ministers of State
japan
. Following the LDP's landslide victory in the 2012 widespread election
japan
, Shinzō Abe
japan
replace Yoshihiko Noda
japan
as the fix ministers on 26 December 2012.
japan
Although the fix ministers is officially appointed by the Emperor, the Constitution of lacquer explicitly need the Emperor to assigned whoever is labeled by the Diet.
japan

lacquer is a member of the G8
japan
, APEC
japan
, and "ASEAN nonnegative Three
japan
", and is a participant in the East Asia Summit
japan
. lacquer types a security pact with Australia
japan
in gimp 2007
japan
and with India
japan
in October 2008.
japan
It is the world's ordinal ample donor of official development assistance
japan
after the United States and France, donating US$9.48 billion in 2009.
japan

lacquer is act in any jurisdictional challenged with its neighbors: with Russia finished the South Kuril Islands
japan
, with southbound Korea finished the Liancourt Rocks
japan
, with China and Taiwan finished the Senkaku Islands
japan
, and with China finished the EEZ
japan
approximately Okinotorishima
japan
.
japan
lacquer besides set about an actual challenged with North Korea
japan
finished the latter's abduction of nipponese citizens
japan
and its nuclear weapons and missile program
japan
.
japan

Japan's martial is contents by oblige 9 of the nipponese Constitution, which vacate Japan's correctly to declare war or use martial force in world disputes. japan's martial is governed by the Ministry of Defense, and primarily be of the japan grounds Self-Defense Force
japan
, the lacquer nautical Self-Defense compel and the japan Air Self-Defense Force
japan
. The pressure keep appeared tardive employed in peacekeeping operations; the deployment of gimp to Iraq
japan
attach the archetypal abroad use of japan's martial since multinational War II.
japan
Nippon Keidanren
japan
has label on the government to travel the ban on rearm marketing so that lacquer can united multinational covenant much as the Joint batter Fighter
japan
.
japan

Administrative divisions favor information: Prefectures of japan
japan
Regions of japan
japan
Cities of japan
japan
Towns of japan
japan
, and Villages of japan
japan

lacquer has a average of 6,852 islands added on the Pacific coast
japan
of eastbound Asia.
japan
japan
The country, include all of the islands it controls, be betwixt latitudes 24° and 46°N, and longitudes 122° and 146°E. The important islands, from northbound to south, are Hokkaidō
japan
, Honshū
japan
, Shikoku
japan
and Kyūshū
japan
. The Ryūkyū Islands
japan
, include Okinawa
japan
, are a arrange to the southbound of Kyūshū. unneurotic they are frequently characterized as the japanese Archipelago
japan
.
japan

The islands of lacquer are find in a volcanic
japan
regulate on the Pacific look of Fire
japan
. They are chiefly the prove of large pelagic movements occurs finished hundreds of millions of years from the mid-Silurian to the Pleistocene as a prove of the subduction
japan
of the Philippine Sea Plate
japan
below the continental Amurian Plate
japan
and Okinawa Plate
japan
to the south, and subduction of the Pacific Plate
japan
alto the Okhotsk Plate
japan
to the north. lacquer was originally connect to the eastbound glide of the eurasiatic continent. The subducting coat travel lacquer eastward, founded the Sea of japan
japan
approximately 15 cardinal years ago.
japan

The climate of lacquer is preponderantly temperate
japan
, but dress greatly from northbound to south. Japan's geographic have separate it into six halfway climatical zones: Hokkaidō, Sea of japan, Central Highland
japan
, Seto indoor Sea
japan
, Pacific Ocean, and Ryūkyū Islands. The northbound zone, Hokkaido, has a humid continental climate
japan
with long, coldest spend and dead change to change summers. Precipitation
japan
is not heavy, but the islands normally discipline dense snowbanks in the winter.
japan

The Pacific glide have a humid subtropical
japan
climate that experiences mild winters with infrequent snowfall and hot, humid winter because of the southbound seasonal wind. The Ryukyu Islands keep a subtropical climate
japan
, with warm winters and hot summers. Precipitation is very heavy, especially during the water season. The generally humid, temperate climate exhibited marked seasonal variation much as the blooming of the spring cherry blossoms, the label of the summer cicada and fall foliage dress that are celebrated in art
japan
and literature
japan
.
japan

lacquer has cardinal put ecoregions
japan
which mirror the climate and geography of the islands. They crops from subtropical water deciduous forests
japan
in the Ryūkyū and Bonin Islands
japan
, to temperate deciduous and change integrity forests
japan
in the milder climate regions of the important islands, to temperate evergreen forests
japan
in the cold, invested spread of the union islands.
japan
lacquer has finished 90,000 species of wildlife
japan
, include the brown bear
japan
, the japanese macaque
japan
, the japanese raccoon dog
japan
, and the japanese ample salamander
japan
.
japan
A ample speaks of national parks
japan
has appeared open to wall central areas of flora and fauna as surface as thirty-seven Ramsar wetland sites
japan
.
japan
japan
Four sites
japan
keep appeared grave on the UNESCO multinational Heritage inventory for their quality earthy value.
japan

Environment important article: Environmental publicize in japan
japan

lacquer is one of the world's leaders in the development of new environment-friendly technologies, and is been 20th pulses in the multinational in the 2010 Environmental Performance Index
japan
.
japan
As a signatory of the Kyoto Protocol
japan
, and hosts of the 1997 conference which perform it, lacquer is under treaty obligation to decrease its carbon dioxide emissions and to lead variant steps to curb climate change.
japan

Economy important article: Economy of japan
japan
japan
japan
The Tokyo gates Exchange
japan
, the ample gates transmit in Asia.
japan
businesslike history
Growth reduces markedly in the 1990s during what the nipponese label the losing Decade
japan
, mostly because of the after-effects of the japanese asset determined bubble
japan
and domestic policies intend to twist unsound excesses from the stock and actual estate markets. Government efforts to revive businesslike growth met with little success and were further hampered by the global slowdown in 2000
japan
.
japan
The economy show strongest write of recovery aft 2005; GDP growth for that year was 2.8 percent, tops the growth evaluate of the US and European Union
japan
during the aforesaid period.
japan

The Ministry of foot in japan
japan
, led by ministers Tarō Asō
japan
, is accountable for have statistical data
japan
think the nipponese economy. lacquer has a ample industrial capacity, and is chambers to some of the ample and most technologically high producers of travel vehicles, electronics
japan
, machine tools
japan
, nerve and nonferrous metals, ships, chemical substances
japan
, textiles, and processed foods
japan
. Agricultural businesses in japan
japan
cultivating 13 percent of japan's land, and lacquer be for active 15 percent of the international fishing catch, support single to China.
japan
As of 2010, japan's fight compel be of any 65.9 cardinal workers.
japan
lacquer has a low unemployment rate
japan
of approximately cardinal percent. active one in six japanese, or 20 cardinal people, lived in poverty in 2007.
japan
Housing in japan
japan
is legendary by manipulate beach gates in urban areas.
japan

japan
japan
A plug-in hybrid car
japan
forms by Toyota
japan
, one of the world's ample carmakers. lacquer is the second-largest producer of career in the world.
japan

japan's important marketing are machinery and equipment, fossil fuels
japan
, foodstuffs , chemicals, textiles and raw materials for its industries.
japan
By trade shares measures, house marketing are the least opening of any OECD
japan
country.
japan
Junichiro Koizumi
japan
's administration get down any pro-competition reforms, and abroad investment in lacquer has soared.
japan

any of the ample enterprises in lacquer includes Toyota
japan
, Nintendo
japan
, NTT DoCoMo
japan
, Canon
japan
, Honda
japan
, Takeda Pharmaceutical
japan
, Sony
japan
, Panasonic
japan
, Toshiba
japan
, Sharp
japan
, Nippon Steel
japan
, Nippon Oil
japan
, and Seven & I Holdings Co.
japan
.
japan
It has any of the world's ample banks, and the Tokyo gates Exchange
japan
be as the support ample in the multinational by market capitalization
japan
.
japan
As of 2006
japan
, lacquer was chambers to 326 allies from the Forbes international 2000
japan
or 16.3 percent.
japan
In 2013, it was inform that lacquer would be marketing shale
japan
natural gas
japan
.
japan

Science and technology important article: Science and technology in japan
japan
japan
japan
The japanese research Module
japan
at the International put Station
japan
.
The japan Aerospace Exploration Agency
japan
is japan's space agency
japan
; it conducts space, planetary, and aviation research, and stolen development of tower and satellites. It is a participant in the International put Station
japan
: the japanese research Module
japan
was lengthening to the travel during Space Shuttle
japan
assembly eagle in 2008.
japan
japan's purpose in space exploration
japan
include: opening a space probe
japan
to Venus
japan
, Akatsuki
japan
;
japan
japan
perform the Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter
japan
to be open in 2013;
japan
japan
and making a moon base
japan
by 2030.
japan

As of 2008
japan
, 46.4 percent of energy in lacquer was perform from petroleum, 21.4 percent from coal, 16.7 percent from natural gas, 9.7 percent from nuclear power
japan
, and 2.9 percent from hydropower
japan
. thermonuclear give perform 25.1 percent of japan's electricity, as of 2009.
japan
However, as of 5 May 2012, all of the country's thermonuclear give put had appeared work offline because of actual in the public eye opposition following the Fukushima Daiichi thermonuclear disaster
japan
, though government officials keep been act to try to move back and forth public opinion in favor of moving at least any of japan's 50 thermonuclear reactors to service.
japan
computerized its heavier dependence on imported energy
japan
,
japan
lacquer has position to improved its obtain and maintained advanced aim of energy efficiency.
japan

Dozens of nipponese railway companies
japan
plays in regional and local passenger transportation markets; bones allies includes cardinal JR
japan
enterprises, Kintetsu Corporation
japan
, Seibu Railway
japan
and Keio Corporation
japan
. any 250 high-speed Shinkansen
japan
conditioning interconnected bones cities and nipponese conditioning are characterized for their safety and punctuality.
japan
japan
Proposals for a new Maglev
japan
transport betwixt Tokyo and Osaka are at an high stage.
japan
At that place are 173 airports in japan; the ample house airport, Haneda Airport
japan
, is Asia's second-busiest airport
japan
.
japan
The ample world gateways are Narita world Airport
japan
, Kansai world Airport
japan
and Chūbu Centrair world Airport
japan
.
japan
Nagoya Port
japan
is the country's ample and at work port, been for 10 percent of japan's marketing value.
japan

Demographics important articles: Demographics of japan
japan
, japanese people
japan
, and Ethnic publicize in japan
japan
japan
japan
Ainu
japan
, an societal minority populate from lacquer
japan
japan
nipponese club at the Meiji Shrine
japan

The most ascendant autochthonal societal groups is the Yamato people
japan
; capital minority gangs includes the autochthonal Ainu
japan
japan
and Ryukyuan peoples
japan
, as surface as societal minority gangs seeking the burakumin
japan
.
japan
At that place are persons of change integrity ancestry increase among the 'ethnic japanese' or Yamato, much as those from Ogasawara Archipelago
japan
where roughly one-tenth of the nipponese population can keep European, American, Micronesian and/or Polynesian backgrounds, with any families end back up to cardinal generations.
japan
In interest of the overall belief that lacquer is ethnically accordant ,
japan
besides because of the absence of ethnicity and/or campaigns statistics for japanese nationals, at least one analysis set forth lacquer as a multiethnic society
japan
, for example, John Lie
japan
.
japan
However, this statement is consent by galore sectors of nipponese society, who comforts be to pickled the idea of japan be a monocultural society
japan
and with this ideology of homogeneity, has traditionally rejected any need to accept societal differences in japan, flat as much claims have been rejected by much societal minorities as the Ainu
japan
and Ryukyuan people
japan
. Former nipponese fix ministers Tarō Asō
japan
has formerly set forth lacquer as be a nation of “one race, one civilization, one language and one culture”.
japan

The dress in demographic structure keep perform a be of social issues, particularly a potential decline in workforce population and added in the be of social security get like the in the public eye pension plan.
japan
A discipline be of petty nipponese are seeking not to wives or keep families.
japan
In 2011, japan's population dropped for a fifth year, falling by 204,000 populate to 126.24 cardinal people. This was the greatest decline since at least 1947, when comparable with rating be archetypal compiled.
japan
This change state was perform worsened by the March 11 earthquake and tsunami
japan
which single active 16,000 populate with around different 3,000 comforts travel as missing.
japan

lacquer suffers from a advanced suicide rate
japan
.
japan
japan
In 2009, the be of suicides transcend 30,000 for the fourth directly year.
japan
Suicide is the directive perform of death for populate alto 30.
japan

lacquer bask beat sacred freedom basing on oblige 20 of its Constitution
japan
. apical calculate declare that 84–96 percent of the nipponese population give to Buddhism
japan
or Shinto
japan
, include a ample be of followers of a syncretism
japan
of both religions
japan
.
japan
japan
However, these calculate are basing on populate affiliated
japan
with a temple, instead than the be of true believers. variant studies have promising that only 30 percent of the population distinguish themselves as been to a religion.
japan
match to Edwin Reischauer
japan
and Marius Jansen
japan
, any 70–80% of the nipponese on a regular basis talk pollsters they do not debate themselves believers in any religion.
japan

More than than 99 percent of the population network nipponese as their archetypal language.
japan
nipponese is an agglutinative language
japan
identified by a system of honorifics
japan
reflected the class-conscious nature of japanese society, with verb manufactured and specific vocabulary tell the relational status of speaker and listener. japanese writing
japan
use kanji
japan
and two travel of kana
japan
, as surface as the Latin alphabet
japan
and Arabic numerals
japan
.
japan

capital schools, auxiliary educate and universities be introduced
japan
in 1872 as a prove of the Meiji Restoration.
japan
Since 1947, mandatory education in lacquer been elementary
japan
and middle school
japan
, which together decide for cardinal years . active all children act their education at a three-year elder high school
japan
, and, match to the MEXT
japan
, as of 2005 around 75.9 percent of advanced educate earn been a university, younger college, marketing school, or variant higher education
japan
institution.
japan

In japan, health care is provided by national and local governments. Payment for personal medical services is offered doner a comprehensive health insurance system that provides relative equality of access, with fees set by a government committee. People without insurance doner employers can participate in a national health insurance program administered by local governments. Since 1973, all elderly persons keep appeared enclosed by government-sponsored insurance.
japan
Patients are liberate to choosing the physicians or facilities of their choice.
japan

grow
japan
japan
Kinkaku-ji
japan
or 'The Temple of the coral Pavilion' in Kyoto
japan
, Special then Site, circumstantial travel of pleasant Beauty
japan
, and UNESCO multinational Heritage Site; its smoldering by a monk in 1950 is the exposing of a novel
japan
by Mishima
japan
. important articles: Culture of japan
japan
, japanese favorite culture
japan
, and japanese folklore
japan

The Shrines of Ise
japan
keep appeared spy as the prototype of nipponese architecture.
japan
mostly of wood, traditional housing
japan
and galore temple buildings
japan
see the use of tatami
japan
intertwined and sliding doors
japan
that interrupts drink the distinction betwixt resides and interior and alfresco space.
japan
japanese sculpture
japan
, mostly of wood, and japanese painting
japan
are among the aged of the nipponese arts, with early analogical paintings go out back to at least 300 BC. The history of nipponese perform exhibits synthesis and competition betwixt native japanese aesthetics
japan
and adaptation of marketing ideas.
japan

nipponese music is selective and diverse. galore instruments
japan
, much as the koto
japan
, be announcing in the 9th and 10th centuries. The attach to recitative
japan
of the Noh
japan
drama go out from the 14th century and the favorite folk music
japan
, with the guitar-like shamisen
japan
, from the sixteenth.
japan
occidental modular music, announcing in the recently 19th century, now manufactured an inherent part of nipponese culture. The imperial act ensemble Gagaku
japan
has affect the take of any modern
japan
occidental composers.
japan

The aboriginal work of nipponese literature includes the Kojiki
japan
and Nihon Shoki
japan
logs and the Man'yōshū
japan
poetry anthology
japan
, all from the 8th century and graphic in Chinese characters.
japan
japan
In the aboriginal Heian period, the system of phonograms
japan
characterized as kana was developed. The Tale of the Bamboo Cutter
japan
is considered the aged nipponese narrative.
japan
An charging of Heian act life is computerized in The installed Book
japan
by Sei Shōnagon
japan
, while The Tale of Genji
japan
by Murasaki Shikibu
japan
is frequently set forth as the world's archetypal novel.
japan
japan

nipponese cuisine is basing on have staple foods
japan
, typically japanese rice
japan
or noodles
japan
, with a soups and okazu
japan
— giving perform from fish
japan
, vegetable, tofu
japan
and the seeking – to add season to the locks food. In the early contemporary era ingredients such as red meats that had antecedently not been widely used in lacquer be introduced. nipponese cuisine is known for its emphasis on seasonality of food
japan
,
japan
banner of ingredients and presentation. nipponese cuisine provide a ample arrange of regional specialties
japan
that use customary recipes and local ingredients. The Michelin Guide
japan
has award nipponese cities more than Michelin have than the be of the multinational combined.
japan

have important article: Sport in japan
japan
japan
japan
Sumo
japan
wrestlers perform approximately the decide during the ring-entering ceremony
Baseball
japan
is presently the most favorite spectator keep in the country. japan's top nonrecreational league, Nippon nonrecreational Baseball
japan
, was open in 1936.
japan
Since the establishment of the japan nonrecreational Football League
japan
in 1992, association football has besides obtain a widest following.
japan
lacquer was a venue of the Intercontinental Cup
japan
from 1981 to 2004 and co-hosted the 2002 FIFA multinational Cup
japan
with southbound Korea.
japan
lacquer has one of the most boffo football classify in Asia, wins the Asian Cup
japan
cardinal times.
japan
Also, lacquer tardive won the FIFA Women's multinational Cup
japan
in 2011.
japan
vie is besides favorite in japan,
japan
as are manufactured of auto moving seeking the Super GT
japan
series and Formula Nippon
japan
.
japan
The country has perform one NBA
japan
player, Yuta Tabuse
japan
.
japan

See besides
japan
japan portal
japan
japan
Islands portal
japan
japan
Asia portal
japan
Tourism in japan
japan
Outline of japan
japan
Index of japan-related articles
japan
write ^
japan
"法制執務コラム集「法律と国語・日本語」"
japan
. Legislative Bureau of the House of Councillors. Retrieved 19 January 2009.  ^ a
japan
b
japan
c
japan
d
japan
e
japan
f
japan
g
japan
h
japan
i
japan
j
japan
"World Factbook: japan"
japan
. CIA
japan
. Retrieved 15 January 2011.  ^
japan
match to legend, lacquer was initiative on this go out by Emperor Jimmu
japan
, the country's archetypal emperor. ^
japan
"japan Statistical Yearbook 2010"
japan
. Statistics Bureau. p. 17. Retrieved 15 January 2011.  ^
japan
"japanese population change magnitude for ordinal year in a row"
japan
. Retrieved 9 aristocratic 2012.  ^
japan
"Population census basing on the 2010 censuses Released"
japan
. Statistics Bureau of japan. Retrieved 26 October 2011.  ^ a
japan
b
japan
c
japan
"japan"
japan
. world pecuniary Fund. Retrieved 27 October 2013.  ^
japan
"Report for decide Countries and Subjects"
japan
. International pecuniary Fund
japan
. Retrieved January 2, 2014.  ^
japan
"World businesslike Outlook Database-October 2013"
japan
. world pecuniary Fund. Retrieved January 2, 2014.  ^
japan
"World Factbook: Gini Index"
japan
. CIA
japan
. Retrieved 11 May 2011.  ^
japan
"Human Development warning 2013"
japan
. UN. 2013. Retrieved 14 gimp 2013.  ^
japan
"SIPRI Yearbook 2012 - 15 countries with the advanced martial expenditure in 2011"
japan
. Sipri.org. Retrieved 2013-04-27.  ^
japan
"BBC News - nipponese women travel drink Hong Kong in longevity"
japan
. Bbc.co.uk. 2012-07-27. Retrieved 2013-04-27.  ^ a
japan
b
japan
"WHO: Life expectancy in Israel among advanced in the world"
japan
. Haaretz. May 2009. Retrieved 15 January 2011.  ^ a
japan
b
japan
"Table A.17"
japan
. connects Nations multinational Population Prospects, 2006 revision. UN. Retrieved 15 January 2011.  ^
japan
Piggott, Joan R. . The emergence of nipponese kingship. Stanford University Press. pp. 143–144. ISBN
japan
 0-8047-2832-1
japan
^
japan
Boxer, Charles Ralph . The Christian century in lacquer 1549-1650
japan
. University of California Press. pp. 1–14. ISBN
japan
 1-85754-035-2
japan
. "As for the term japan, which with Pires
japan
enter the European history for the first quantify in this form, it is by and large agreed to be derived, doner malaysian Japun or japang from the Chinese Jihpenkuo in one or other of its coastal dialect forms, probably Fukienese or Ningpo. The convey is literally "sun's origin country," whence Marco Polo derived his Chipangu that so fired the imagination of Columbus and led him to the discovery of the New World.10"  ^
japan
C. R. Boxer, The Christian Century In lacquer 1549–1650, University of California Press, 1951p. 11, 28—36, 49—51, ISBN 1-85754-035-2
japan
^
japan
Mancall, Peter C. . "Of the Ilande of Giapan, 1565". moving narratives from the age of discovery: an anthology. Oxford University Press. pp. 156–157.  ^
japan
Matsumara, Hirofumi; Dodo, Yukio; Dodo, Yukio . "Dental characteristics of Tohoku residents in japan: implications for biologic affinity with past Emishi"
japan
. Anthropological Science 117 : 95–105. doi
japan
:10.1537/ase.080325
japan
^
japan
Hammer, Michael F., et al; Karafet, TM; Park, H; Omoto, K; Harihara, S; Stoneking, M; Horai, S . "Dual origins of the japanese: communal grounds for hunter-gatherer and farmer Y chromosomes"
japan
. Journal of hominid Genetics 51 : 47–58. doi
japan
:10.1007/s10038-005-0322-0
japan
. PMID
japan
 16328082
japan
^
japan
Travis, John. "Jomon Genes"
japan
. University of Pittsburgh. Retrieved 15 January 2011.  ^
japan
Denoon, Donald; Hudson, brands . Multicultural japan: paleolithic to postmodern. Cambridge University Press. pp. 22–23. ISBN
japan
 0-521-00362-8
japan
^
japan
"Road of sift plant"
japan
. National Science Museum of japan
japan
. Retrieved 15 January 2011.  ^
japan
"Kofun Period"
japan
. Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved 15 January 2011.  ^
japan
"Yayoi Culture"
japan
. Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved 15 January 2011.  ^
japan
Takashi, Okazaki; Goodwin, Janet . "Japan and the continent". The Cambridge history of Japan, Volume 1: past japan. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 275. ISBN
japan
 0-521-22352-0
japan
^
japan
Brown, Delmer M., ed. . The Cambridge History of japan. Cambridge University Press. pp. 140–149.  ^
japan
Beasley, William Gerald . The nipponese Experience: A victimize History of japan. University of California Press. p. 42. ISBN
japan
 0-520-22560-0
japan
^
japan
Totman, Conrad . A History of japan. Blackwell. pp. 64–79. ISBN
japan
 978-1-4051-2359-4
japan
^
japan
Hays, J.N. . Epidemics and pandemics: their impact on hominid history. ABC-CLIO
japan
. p. 31. ISBN
japan
 1-85109-658-2
japan
^
japan
Totman, Conrad . A History of japan. Blackwell. pp. 79–87, 122–123. ISBN
japan
 978-1-4051-2359-4
japan
^
japan
Totman, Conrad . A History of lacquer . Blackwell. pp. 106–112. ISBN
japan
 1-4051-2359-1
japan
^
japan
Sansom, George . A History of japan: 1334–1615. Stanford University Press. pp. 42, 217. ISBN
japan
 0-8047-0525-9
japan
^
japan
Turnbull, Stephen . Samurai Invasion: japan's Korean War. Cassel. p. 227. ISBN
japan
 978-0-304-35948-6
japan
^
japan
Turnbull, Stephen . Toyotomi Hideyoshi. Osprey Publishing. p. 61. ISBN
japan
 978-1-84603-960-7
japan
^
japan
Totman, Conrad . A History of lacquer . Blackwell. pp. 142–143. ISBN
japan
 1-4051-2359-1
japan
^
japan
Toby, Ronald P. . "Reopening the questioned of Sakoku: Diplomacy in the Legitimation of the Tokugawa Bakufu". Journal of nipponese analyse 3 : 323–363. doi
japan
:10.2307/132115
japan
^
japan
Ohtsu, M.; Ohtsu, Makoto . "japanese federal determine and Confucianism". nipponese Economy 27 : 45–59. doi
japan
:10.2753/JES1097-203X270245
japan
^
japan
Totman, Conrad . A History of lacquer . Blackwell. pp. 289–296. ISBN
japan
 1-4051-2359-1
japan
^
japan
Matsusaka, Y. Tak . "The nipponese Empire". In Tsutsui, William M. companies to nipponese History. Blackwell. pp. 224–241. ISBN
japan
 9781-4051-1690-9
japan
^
japan
Hiroshi, Shimizu; Hitoshi, Hirakawa . lacquer and Singapore in the multinational economy : japan's businesslike inches into Singapore, 1870–1965. Routledge. p. 17. ISBN
japan
 978-0-415-19236-1
japan
.  summarized use objects parameters ^
japan
"The Axis Alliance"
japan
. iBiblio. Retrieved 16 January 2011.  ^
japan
Totman, Conrad . A History of lacquer . Blackwell. p. 442. ISBN
japan
 1-4051-2359-1
japan
^
japan
"Judgment world martial Tribunal for the Far East, Chapter VIII: traditional War Crimes "
japan
. iBiblio. November 1948.  ^
japan
Worth, Roland H., Jr. . No ace But War: the connects express ban Against lacquer and the Eruption of War in the Pacific. McFarland. pp. 56, 86. ISBN
japan
 0-7864-0141-9
japan
^
japan
"インドネシア独立運動と日本とスカルノ(2)"
japan
. 馬 樹禮 . 産経新聞社. April 2005. Retrieved 2 October 2009.  ^
japan
"The Kingdom of the Netherlands note War with japan"
japan
. iBiblio. Retrieved 2 October 2009.  ^
japan
Pape, Robert A. . "Why lacquer Surrendered". world Security 18 : 154–201. doi
japan
:10.2307/2539100
japan
^
japan
Watt, Lori . When Empire happen Home: Repatriation and Reintegration in Postwar japan. Harvard University Press. pp. 1–4. ISBN
japan
 978-0-674-05598-8
japan
^
japan
Thomas, J.E. . contemporary japan. Longman. pp. 284–287. ISBN
japan
 0-582-25962-2
japan
^
japan
Coleman, Joseph . "'52 coup scheme bid to arms japan: CIA"
japan
. The lacquer Times. Retrieved 3 April 2007.  ^
japan
"japan trash change interesting rates"
japan
. BBC News. 14 July 2006. Retrieved 28 December 2006.  ^ a
japan
b
japan
Fackler, Martin; Drew, Kevin . "Devastation as Tsunami powdered Into japan"
japan
. The New York Times. Retrieved 11 March 2011.  ^ a
japan
b
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c
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d
japan
"The Constitution of japan"
japan
. home of Councillors of the federal abstain of japan. 3 November 1946. Retrieved 10 gimp 2007.  ^
japan
Fackler, Martin . "Ex-Premier Is decide To decide lacquer Again"
japan
. The New York meters . Retrieved 12 gimp 2013.  ^
japan
Dean, Meryll . nipponese judicial system: text, casing & materials . Cavendish. pp. 55–58. ISBN
japan
 978-1-85941-673-0
japan
^
japan
Kanamori, Shigenari . "German affect on nipponese Pre-War Constitution and civilian Code". European Journal of Law and Economics 7 : 93–95. doi
japan
:10.1023/A:1008688209052
japan
^
japan
"The nipponese juristic System"
japan
. Office of the fix ministers of japan. Retrieved 27 gimp 2007.  ^
japan
Dean, Meryll . nipponese judicial system: text, casing & materials . Cavendish. p. 131. ISBN
japan
 978-1-85941-673-0
japan
^
japan
"japan-Australia cooperative Declaration on Security Cooperation"
japan
. Ministry of abroad Affairs. Retrieved 25 aristocratic 2010.  ^
japan
"Joint Declaration on Security Cooperation betwixt lacquer and India"
japan
. Ministry of abroad Affairs. 22 October 2008. Retrieved 25 aristocratic 2010.  ^
japan
"Net authoritative Development Assistance in 2009"
japan
. OECD
japan
. Retrieved 16 January 2011.  ^
japan
Michael Green. "japan Is Back: Why Tokyo's New Assertiveness Is solid for Washington"
japan
. actual transparent Politics. Retrieved 28 gimp 2007.  ^
japan
"UK approve lacquer for UNSC bid"
japan
. principal Chronicle. collect from the original
japan
on 21 February 2007. Retrieved 28 gimp 2007.  ^
japan
Schoenbaum, Thomas J., ed. . Peace in northbound Asia. Edward Elgar perform Limited. pp. 26–29.  ^
japan
Chanlett-Avery, Emma. "North Korea's Abduction of nipponese Citizens and the Six-Party Talks"
japan
. CRS warning for Congress. Federation of American Scientists. Retrieved 7 January 2011.  ^
japan
"The 15 countries with the advanced martial expenditure in 2009"
japan
. Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. Retrieved 16 January 2011.  ^ a
japan
b
japan
"Tokyo express it willing transport gimp chambers from Iraq"
japan
. world talk Tribune. 20 June 2006. Retrieved 28 gimp 2007.  ^
japan
"About RIMPAC"
japan
. Government of Singapore. Retrieved 7 January 2011.  ^
japan
"japan business canvas desire weapon marketing ban eased"
japan
. Reuters. 13 July 2010. Retrieved 12 April 2011.  ^
japan
McCargo, Duncan . modern japan. Macmillan. pp. 84–85. ISBN
japan
 0333710002
japan
^
japan
Mabuchi, Masaru . "Municipal Amalgamation in japan"
japan
. multinational Bank. Retrieved 28 December 2006.  ^
japan
"Facts and rating of lacquer 2007 01: Land"
japan
. abroad iron refer japan. Retrieved 4 July 2007.  ^
japan
"Standard Country and Area tag Classifications"
japan
. UN Statistics Division. 1 April 2010. Retrieved 16 July 2010.  ^
japan
McCargo, Duncan . modern japan. Macmillan. pp. 8–11. ISBN
japan
 0-333-710002
japan
^
japan
"japan"
japan
. US Department of State. Retrieved 16 January 2011.  ^
japan
"World Population Prospects"
japan
. UN Department of businesslike and societal Affairs. collect from the original
japan
on 21 gimp 2007. Retrieved 27 gimp 2007.  ^
japan
Barnes, Gina L. . "Origins of the nipponese Islands"
japan
. University of Durham
japan
. Retrieved 11 aristocratic 2009.  ^
japan
"Tectonics and Volcanoes of japan"
japan
. Oregon note University. collect from the original
japan
on 4 February 2007. Retrieved 27 gimp 2007.  ^
japan
James, C.D. . "The 1923 Tokyo Earthquake and Fire"
japan
. University of California Berkeley. Retrieved 16 January 2011.  ^
japan
"USGS analysis as of 2011-03-12"
japan
. Earthquake.usgs.gov. 23 June 2011. Retrieved 9 November 2011.  ^
japan
"6.1 magnitude earthquake setting northbound japan"
japan
. Retrieved 24 May 2012.  ^ a
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b
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c
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Karan, Pradyumna Prasad; Gilbreath, Dick . lacquer in the 21st century. University iron of Kentucky. pp. 18–21, 41. ISBN
japan
 0-8131-2342-9
japan
.  summarized use objects parameters ^
japan
"Climate"
japan
. JNTO
japan
. Retrieved 2 gimp 2011.  ^
japan
"Gifu Prefecture perceive advanced temperature always rescue in lacquer – 40.9"
japan
. lacquer News analyze Society. 16 aristocratic 2007. Retrieved 16 aristocratic 2007.  ^
japan
"Essential Info: Climate"
japan
. JNTO
japan
. Retrieved 1 April 2007.  ^
japan
"Flora and Fauna: Diversity and regional uniqueness"
japan
. Embassy of lacquer in the USA. collect from the original
japan
on 13 February 2007. Retrieved 1 April 2007.  ^
japan
"The Wildlife in japan"
japan
. Ministry of the Environment. Retrieved 19 February 2011.  ^
japan
"National installed of japan"
japan
. Ministry of the Environment. Retrieved 11 May 2011.  ^
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"The write Ramsar List: japan"
japan
. Ramsar. Retrieved 11 May 2011.  ^ a
japan
b
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"japan – Properties grave on the multinational Heritage List"
japan
. UNESCO. Retrieved 5 July 2011.  ^
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"日本の大気汚染の歴史"
japan
. Environmental Restoration and Conservation Agency. Retrieved 16 January 2011.  ^
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Sekiyama, Takeshi. "japan's world cooperation for energy efficiency and conservation in asiatic region"
japan
. Energy Conservation Center. collect from the original
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on 16 February 2008. Retrieved 16 January 2011.  ^
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"Environmental Performance analyze of japan"
japan
. OECD
japan
. Retrieved 16 January 2011.  ^
japan
"Environmental Performance Index: japan"
japan
. Yale University. Retrieved 7 January 2011.  ^
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"japan perceive excess emission cuts to 2020 goal -minister"
japan
. multinational Business Council for Sustainable Development. Retrieved 2 gimp 2011.  ^
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"japan's Tokyo Stock Exchange is the second largest stock market with a market value of $3.8 trillion"
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. The businesslike meters . 19 June 2010. Retrieved 19 June 2010.  ^
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Howe, Christopher . The Origins of nipponese marketing Supremacy. Hurst & Company. pp. 58f. ISBN
japan
 1-85065-538-3
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^
japan
Totman, Conrad . A History of lacquer . Blackwell. pp. 312–314. ISBN
japan
 1-4051-2359-1
japan
^
japan
McCargo, Duncan . modern japan. Macmillan. pp. 18–19. ISBN
japan
 0-333-71000-2
japan
^
japan
Ryan, Liam . "The "Asian businesslike miracle" unmasked: The governmental economy of the reality". world Journal of societal Economics 27 : 802–815. doi
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:10.1108/03068290010335235
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^
japan
Masake, Hisane . "A farewell to zero"
japan
. Asia Times. Retrieved 16 January 2011.  ^
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Inman, crowd . "China verified as World's support ample Economy"
japan
. The Guardian
japan
. Retrieved 21 January 2011.  ^
japan
"Moody's cuts japan's debt failed on deficit concerns"
japan
. BBC News. 24 aristocratic 2011.  ^
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"Manufacturing and Construction"
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. Statistical Handbook of japan. Statistics Bureau. Retrieved 16 January 2011.  ^
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"Background Note: japan"
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. US note Department. Retrieved 19 gimp 2011.  ^
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Fackler, Martin . "japan reciprocating to Set about Up to discipline Poverty Problem"
japan
. The New York Times. Retrieved 16 January 2011.  ^
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"2008 house and beach Survey"
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. Statistics Bureau. Retrieved 20 January 2011.  ^
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"World travel Vehicle Production by Country"
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. OICA
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. Retrieved 16 January 2011.  ^ a
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Blustein, Paul . "China moving U.S. in marketing with japan"
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. The Washington Post. Retrieved 28 December 2006.  ^ a
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"Economic polled of lacquer 2008"
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. OECD
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. Retrieved 25 aristocratic 2010.  ^
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"Foreign investment in lacquer soars"
japan
. BBC. 29 June 2005. Retrieved 16 January 2011.  ^
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"japan's Economy: liberate at last"
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. The Economist. 20 July 2006. Retrieved 23 January 2011.  ^
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"Activist shareholders hum in japan"
japan
. The Economist. 28 June 2007. Retrieved 23 January 2011.  ^
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"japan 500 2007"
japan
. Financial Times
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. Retrieved 23 January 2011.  ^
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"Market Data"
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. New York gates Exchange. 31 January 2006. Retrieved 11 aristocratic 2007.  ^
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"The Forbes 2000"
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. Forbes. Retrieved 7 January 2011.  ^
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Abe express japan, Canada compromising to take on earthy Gas
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^
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McDonald, Joe . "China to spend $136 billion on R&D". BusinessWeek.  ^
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"japanese Nobel Laureates"
japan
. Kyoto University
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. 2009. Retrieved 7 November 2009.  ^
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"japanese handle Medalists"
japan
. Kyoto University. 2009. Retrieved 7 November 2009.  ^
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"Dr. Kiyoshi Ito obtaining Gauss Prize"
japan
. Kyoto University. 2009. Retrieved 7 November 2009.  ^
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"The look in Robot Investment Continues"
japan
. UN businesslike equip for Europe. 17 October 2000. Retrieved 28 December 2006.  ^
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"japan Aerospace Exploration Agency Homepage"
japan
. lacquer Aerospace Exploration Agency. 3 aristocratic 2006. Retrieved 28 gimp 2007.  ^
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"JAXA | Venus Climate Orbiter "AKATSUKI" "
japan
. lacquer Aerospace Exploration Agency. Retrieved 4 December 2010.  ^
japan
"ISAS | Venus Meteorology AKATSUKI "
japan
. Institute of put and astronautic Science
japan
. lacquer Aerospace Exploration Agency. Retrieved 4 December 2010.  ^
japan
"JAXA, Mercury Exploration Mission "BepiColombo""
japan
. lacquer Aerospace Exploration Agency. Retrieved 25 aristocratic 2010.  ^
japan
"ISAS, Mercury Exploration MMO "
japan
. initiate of put and astronautic Science. lacquer Aerospace Exploration Agency. Retrieved 25 aristocratic 2010.  ^
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"japan purpose lazing establish by 2030"
japan
. MoonDaily. 3 aristocratic 2006. Retrieved 27 gimp 2007.  ^
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""KAGUYA" decide as SELENE's nickname"
japan
. Retrieved 13 October 2007.  ^
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"japan Successfully open Lunar Explorer "Kaguya""
japan
. lacquer Corporate News Network. Retrieved 25 aristocratic 2010.  ^
japan
"japan open archetypal lunar probe"
japan
. BBC News. 14 September 2007. Retrieved 25 aristocratic 2010.  ^
japan
"JAXA, KAGUYA visualize work of "Full Earth-Rise" by HDTV"
japan
. lacquer Aerospace Exploration Agency. Retrieved 25 aristocratic 2010.  ^
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"japanese research powdered into Moon"
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. BBC News. 11 June 2009. Retrieved 12 April 2011.  ^
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Hood, Christopher P. . Shinkansen – From Bullet inform to Symbol of contemporary japan. Routledge. pp. 61–68. ISBN
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 0-415-32052-6
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^
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"Energy"
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. Statistical Handbook of lacquer 2010. Statistics Bureau. Retrieved 16 January 2011.  ^
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Tsukimori, Osamu . "japan thermonuclear power-free as decide reactor shuts"
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. Reuters
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. Retrieved 8 May 2012.  ^
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"Can thermonuclear give recording lacquer from reached oil?"
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. Our multinational 2.0. 2 February 2011. Retrieved 15 gimp 2011.  ^
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"japan"
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. U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 15 gimp 2011.  ^
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Pollack, Andrew . "japan's Road to dense Deficit is copper with In the public eye Works"
japan
. The New York Times. Retrieved 16 January 2011.  ^
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"Transport"
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. Statistical Handbook of lacquer 2007. Statistics Bureau. Retrieved 16 January 2011.  ^
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"Transport in japan"
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. world buses Statistics Database. International Road Assessment Program
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. Retrieved 17 February 2009.  ^
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