Acronym

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An acronym is an abbreviation
acronym
formed from the initials components in a phrase or a word. These components may be idiosyncratic letters or move of words . There is no universal agreement on the precise definition of various names for much abbreviations nor on graphic usage . In English and most variant languages, much abbreviations historically had limited use, but they became much more common in the 20th century. acronyms are a type of word formation
acronym
process, and they are think as a subtype of blending
acronym
.
Nomenclature
While an abbreviation
acronym
is the decrease perform of any initial, syllable or parts of a word or words, an initialism think of to an abbreviation perform from, and employed simply as, a packing of initials.
acronym
Although the titled acronym is widely employed to involves to any abbreviation perform from initials letters,
acronym
any dictionaries be acronym to meant "a word" in its archetypal sense,
acronym
acronym
acronym
while any others includes cumulative perceived rating to acronym the same convey as that of initialism.
acronym
acronym
acronym
acronym
The distinction, when made, hinges on whether the abbreviation is lisp as a word, or as a packing of letters. In much cases, examples open in dictionaries includes NATO
acronym
/
acronym
ˈ
acronym
n
acronym
acronym
t
acronym
acronym
/
acronym
, scuba
acronym
/
acronym
ˈ
acronym
s
acronym
k
acronym
acronym
b
acronym
ə
acronym
/
acronym
, and radar
acronym
/
acronym
ˈ
acronym
r
acronym
acronym
d
acronym
ɑr
acronym
/
acronym
for acronyms, and FBI
acronym
/
acronym
ˌ
acronym
ɛ
acronym
f
acronym
ˌ
acronym
b
acronym
acronym
ˈ
acronym
acronym
/
acronym
and HTML
acronym
/
acronym
ˌ
acronym
acronym
acronym
ˌ
acronym
t
acronym
acronym
ˌ
acronym
ɛ
acronym
m
acronym
ˈ
acronym
ɛ
acronym
l
acronym
/
acronym
for initialisms.
acronym
acronym
acronym
In the be of this article, this distinction is not made.
There is also any disagreement as to what to label abbreviations that any speakers pronounced as receive and others pronounced as a word. For example, the label URL
acronym
and IRA
acronym
can be lisp as idiosyncratic letters: /
acronym
ˌ
acronym
juː
acronym
ˌ
acronym
ɑr
acronym
ˈ
acronym
ɛ
acronym
l
acronym
/
acronym
and /
acronym
ˌ
acronym
acronym
ˌ
acronym
ɑr
acronym
ˈ
acronym
acronym
/
acronym
, respectively; or as a only word: /
acronym
ˈ
acronym
ɜr
acronym
l
acronym
/
acronym
and /
acronym
ˈ
acronym
aɪər
acronym
ə
acronym
/
acronym
, respectively. much constructions, however—regardless of how they are pronounced—if perform from initials, may be distinguished as initialisms.
acronymy, seeking retronymy
acronym
, is a lingual affect that has be end-to-end history but for which at that place was smallest to no naming
acronym
, intend attention, or systematic analysis
acronym
until comparatively revolutionary times. Like retronymy, it change state such more than communal in the 20th century than it had once been.
During the mid- to late-19th century, an acronym-disseminating curve distributed doner the American and European business communities: decrease corporation
acronym
designate in travel where put was manipulate for writing—such as on the lateral of railroad cars
acronym
; on the lateral of put and crates; and on ticker tape
acronym
and in the small-print newspaper gates listings that got their data from it . Some well-known commercialized examples go out from the 1890s doner 1920s includes Nabisco
acronym
,
acronym
Esso
acronym
, and Sunoco
acronym
.
The widespread, support use of acronyms across the entire crops of registers
acronym
is a relatively new linguistic phenomenon in most languages, becoming progressively evident since the mid-20th century. As literacy rates rose, and as moving in science and technology brought with them a invariable streamed of new label and concepts, the practise of abbreviating label became progressively convenient. The Oxford English Dictionary
acronym
records the archetypal perform use of the word initialism as occurs in 1899, but it did not happen into widespread use until 1965, surface aft acronym had become common.
In English, acronyms lisp as words may be a 20th-century phenomenon. Linguist David Wilton in Word Myths: Debunking Linguistic Urban Legends claims that "forming words from acronyms is a distinctly twentieth- century phenomenon. There is only one known pre-twentieth-century vent with an acronymous origin and it was in vogue for only a short quantify in 1886. The vent is colinderies or colinda, an acronym for the Colonial and Indian Exposition held in London in that year."
acronym
acronym
However, although acronymous words be not to keep been utilised in general vocabulary before the 20th century , the concept of their formation is meet as effortlessly understood in a Poe story of the 1830s, "How to types a Blackwood Article
acronym
", which encompasses the create by mental act acronym P.R.E.T.T.Y.B.L.U.E.B.A.T.C.H.
aboriginal examples in English The use of Latin and Neo-Latin label in vernaculars
acronym
has appeared pan-European and preceded contemporary English. any examples of acronyms in this categorize are: A.M.
acronym
and P.M.
acronym
A.D. , is English-sourced) O.K.
acronym
, a titled of contested origin, go out endorse at least to the aboriginal 19th century, now employed approximately the multinational The etymology
acronym
of the vent alphabet itself happen to Middle English
acronym
from the Late Latin
acronym
Alphabetum, which in trend derived from the Ancient Greek
acronym
Alphabetos, from alpha
acronym
and beta
acronym
, the archetypal two receive of the Greek alphabet
acronym
.
acronym
In colloquial terms, larn the alphabet is label larn one's ABCs. Since the letter names stand for themselves in these examples instead than be the initials of variant words, these are not really acronyms. Current use
The use of acronyms has appeared favor travel with the emergence of Short Message Systems . To fit messages into the 160-character contents of SMS, acronyms much as "GF" , "LOL" , and "DL" keep appeared travel into the mainstream.
acronym
Although prescriptivist
acronym
hate for much neologism is fashionable, and can be multipurpose when the goal is protects covenant receivers from crypticness
acronym
, it is scientifically groundless when give voice as have the "purity" or "legitimacy" of language; this neologism is merely the actual details of a perennial linguistic principle—the same one that in the 19th century prompted the aforementioned abbreviation of corporation names in travel where put for create verbally was limited .
help to larn the expansion without travel a rescue
In addition to expansion at first use, some publications also keep a key listing all acronyms used therein and what their expansions are. This is a convenience to readers for two reasons. The first is that if they are not interpret the entire publication sequentially , then they may accommodate an acronym without having seen its expansion. Having a key at the start or end of the publication obviates skimming over the text searching for an before use to find the expansion. The support reason for the key feature is its pedagogical value in educational work such as textbooks. It gives students a way to review the meanings of the acronyms introduced in a chapter after they keep done the line-by-line reading, and also a way to quiz themselves on the meanings In addition, this feature enables readers possessing knowledge of the abbreviations not to keep to accommodate expansions .
acronyms frequently happen in jargon
acronym
. An acronym may keep other meanings in other areas of industry, writing, and scholarship. The widespread reason for this is convenience and succinctness for specialists, although it has led some to obfuscate the meaning either intentionally, to deter those without such domain-specific knowledge, or unintentionally, by creating an acronym that already existed.
acronyms are frequently inform as mnemonic
acronym
devices, for example in physics the dress of the circumpolar spectrum are ROY G. BIV
acronym
. They are besides employed as psychological checklists, for example in aviation: GUMPS
acronym
, which is Gas-Undercarriage-Mixture-Propeller-Seatbelts. variant examples of mnemotechnic acronyms includes CAN SLIM
acronym
, and PAVPANIC
acronym
.
acronyms as known etymology See also: Backronym
acronym

In English, abbreviations keep traditionally appeared graphic with a full stop/period/point
acronym
in travel of the remove move to display the ellipsis of letters, although the colon
acronym
and apostrophe
acronym
keep also had this role. In the inspect of most acronyms, each receive is an abbreviation of a separate vent and, in theory, should get its own termination mark. much punctuation is diminishing with the belief that the presence of all-capital letters is sufficient to indicate that the vent is an abbreviation.
Ellipsis-is-understood label
Nevertheless, any authoritative style guides
acronym
, galore of them American
acronym
, comforts entailed periods in reliable instances. For example, The New York Times
acronym
’ manipulate propose following all filtered with a period when the receive are lisp individually, as in K.G.B.
acronym
, but not when lisp as a word, as in NATO
acronym
.
acronym
The logic of this label is that the pronunciation is reflects diagrammatically by the punctuation scheme.
variant conventions
The slash
acronym
is sometimes employed to segment the receive in a two-letter acronym, as in N/A , c/o and w/o .
Turabian
acronym
allows for an apostrophe to perform plural acronyms "only when an abbreviation contains internal periods or both primary and little letters". The MLA
acronym
explicitly says, "do not use an apostrophe to perform the plural of an abbreviation". The APA specifically says,
acronym
acronym
"without an apostrophe".
However, it has arose communal among galore writers to inflect
acronym
acronyms as ordinary words, using simple s, without an apostrophe, for the plural. In this case, be discs change state CDs. The logic show is that the apostrophe should be contents to possessives: for example, the CD's label .
acronym

A particularly plush source of options arose when the plural of an acronym would commonly be indicated in a vent variant than the close vent if spelled out in full. A modular example is Member of Parliament, which in plural is Members of Parliament. It is possible sometime to decrease this as M's P.
acronym
acronym
acronym
), as employed by former Australian fix ministers Ben Chifley.
acronym
acronym
acronym
This usage is fewer common than forms with s at the end, much as MPs, and may appear go out or pedantic. In common usage, therefore, weapons of masses destruction change state WMDs, prisoners of war change state POWs, and runs batted in change state RBIs—generally if the abbreviation end with a tensed
acronym
back vowel
acronym
syllable. The plural of RBI is "RBIs" because acronyms become bona fide words as language evolves, and as with variant words carts a plural suffix at the end to be perform plural, flat if the first word is the important noun in the spelled-out form.
acronym
acronym
acronym
acronym

Abbreviations that come from single, rather than multiple, words—such as TV —are normally inflect without apostrophes ; most writers feel that the apostrophe should be order for the genitive .
The most communal capitalization
acronym
schemes seen with acronyms is all-uppercase , minds for those few that keep linguistically work on an identity as first-string words, with the acronymous
acronym
etymology of the express change into the underlines of communal knowledge, much as has happen with the express scuba
acronym
, laser
acronym
, and radar
acronym
—these are characterized as anacronyms.
acronym

Small-caps other
Words derived from an acronym by attach are typically meant in change integrity case, so the root acronym is clear. For example "pre-WWII politics" or "post-NATO world". In some cases a derived acronym may besides be meant in change integrity case. For example, messenger RNA
acronym
and transfer RNA
acronym
arose mRNA and tRNA.
Pronunciation-dependent label
any label manuals besides establish the letters' case
acronym
on their number. The New York Times, for example, have NATO in all capitals , but use move inspect in Unicef
acronym
because it is more than than cardinal letters, and to label it in lie might sound awkward .
Numerals and necessary express
be in designate are frequently equal by digits
acronym
instead than initials letters: as in 4GL or G77 . ample be may use metric prefixes
acronym
, as with Y2K
acronym
for "Year 2000" . Exceptions use initial for be includes TLA
acronym
and GoF " title="Gang of Four " class="mw-redirect">Gang of Four
acronym
). Abbreviations use be for variant intend includes repetitions, much as W3C
acronym
and T3
acronym
; pronunciation, much as B2B
acronym
; and numeronyms
acronym
, much as i18n .
Inspect of expansions
Not all publishers edit limit earlier perform it, however, so unaltered name is perceive frequently.
Changes to the expanded meaning the expanded meaning">edit
acronym
] Pseudo-acronyms
Pseudo-acronyms may keep prefer in world markets: for example, any federal affiliates
acronym
of International Business Machines
acronym
are lawfully increase as "IBM" to avoids summarized the beat term into local languages. Likewise, "UBS
acronym
" is the term of the compound Union behave of Switzerland
acronym
and Swiss behave Corporation
acronym
,
acronym
and "HSBC
acronym
" has replace "The Hongkong and kidnap behave Corporation."
excess acronyms and RAS syndrome important article: RAS syndrome
acronym

different communal example is RAM
acronym
memory, which is redundant because RAM includes the initials of the vent memory. PIN stands for personal identification number, obviating the support vent in PIN number; in this case its retention may be perform to avoid ambiguity with the homophonous vent "pin". Other examples includes ATM
acronym
shape , EAB bank
acronym
, DC Comics
acronym
, HIV
acronym
virus , Microsoft's NT Technology and the once excess SAT
acronym
examine . TNN
acronym
besides term itself The New TNN for a inform interlude.
Sometimes, the initial act to be for an grow meaning, but the archetypal convey is merely replaced. any examples:
DVD
acronym
was originally an acronym of the summary titled digital video disk, but is now word by the DVD Forum
acronym
as be for Digital change Disc. GAO
acronym
changed the beat perform of its name from widespread been Office to Government Accountability Office. The OCLC changed the beat perform of its name from Ohio College Library refer to Online Computer Library Center
acronym
. RAID
acronym
used to meant excess arrange of Bargain-priced Disks, but is now commonly understand as excess arrange of autarkic Disks. WWF originally be for World Wildlife Fund, but now be for Worldwide Roll up for Nature
acronym
. Backronyms important article: Backronym
acronym

acronyms are sometimes contrived
acronym
, that is, intentionally designing to be particularly apt for the thing be designate . any examples of create by mental act acronyms are USA PATRIOT
acronym
, CAN SPAM
acronym
, CAPTCHA
acronym
and ACT UP
acronym
. The change state consort French Connection
acronym
began referring to itself as fcuk, standing for "French Connection United Kingdom." The consort sometime perform t-shirts and several advertise campaigns that mining the acronym's similarity to the contents vent "fuck
acronym
". See the list of fictional espionage organizations
acronym
for more than examples of create by mental act acronyms.
any acronyms are decide intentionally to avoids a term considered undesirable: For example, Verliebt in Berlin
acronym
, a German telenovela
acronym
, was first intend to be Alles nur aus Liebe , but was centralized to avoid the subsequent acronym ANAL. Likewise, the Computer Literacy and Internet Technology qualification is characterized as CLaIT,
acronym
instead than CLIT
acronym
. In Canada, the Canadian blimpish repaired Alliance
acronym
was quickly renamed to the Canadian Reform Conservative Alliance when its opponents pointed out that its initials spelled CCRAP . " title="Frank ">Frank
acronym
had declare alternatives to CCRAP, viz. SSHIT and NSDAP
acronym
.) Two Irish triggered of Technology decide different acronyms from other triggered when they were upgraded from Regional Technical colleges. Tralee RTC became the initiate of Technology Tralee , as opposes to Tralee initiate of Technology . Galway RTC became Galway-Mayo initiate of Technology , as opposes to Galway initiate of Technology . Team in Training
acronym
is characterized as TNT and not TIT. Technological initiate of Textile & Sciences
acronym
is comforts characterized as TITS.
A macronym, or populate acronym, is an acronym in which one or more than receive be for acronyms themselves. The vent "macronym" is a portmanteau
acronym
of "macro-
acronym
" and "acronym".
Some macronyms can be doubled nested—the support order acronym level to different one favor drink a hierarchy. In an casual competition run by the magazine New Scientist
acronym
, a to the full documented specimen was discovered that may be the most profoundly populate of all: RARS is the "Regional ATOVS Retransmission Service", ATOVS is high TOVS
acronym
, TOVS is TIROS
acronym
operational plumb dependable and TIROS is Television invisible existential satellite.
acronym

algorithmic acronyms important article: Recursive acronym
acronym

any examples of algorithmic acronyms are:
GNU
acronym
be for "GNU's Not Unix" LAME
acronym
be for "LAME Ain't an MP3 Encoder" PHP
acronym
be for "PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor" WINE
acronym
be for "WINE Is Not an Emulator" HURD
acronym
be for "HIRD of Unix-replacing daemons", where HIRD itself be for "HURD of interfaces equal depth" Non-English language asiatic languages Chinese
For example, in Chinese, the word "大學"/"大学" , when employed with the name of the university, is usually reduces simply as "大" *"big"). So "北京大学" is ordinarily reduces to "北大" . In this case, the first scratch "北" and "大" from "北京" and "大学" are work to compose the victimize form. In any cases, however, other scratch than the first can be selected. For example, the local victimize form of "香港大學" is "港大" rather than "香大".
galore becoming nouns arose reduces and reduces finished time. For example, the CCTV New Year's Gala
acronym
, whose full name is literally read as "China Central Television travel Festival Joint Celebration Change surface Gala" was first shortened to "Spring Festival Joint Celebration Change surface Gala" , but finally referred to as simply Chunwan . on the same vein, Zhongguo Zhongyang Dianshi Tai was reduced to Yangshi in the mid-2000s.
nipponese important article: Japanese reduces and contracting words
acronym

At that place is besides a overall use of acronyms in Indonesia
acronym
in all aspect of societal life. For example, the Golkar
acronym
governmental celebrate be for Partai Golongan Karya, Monas
acronym
be for "Monumen Nasional" , the Angkot in the public eye buses be for "Angkutan Kota" , warnet be for "warung internet" , and galore others. any acronyms are considered ceremonial , while galore more are considered informal, slang
acronym
or colloquial
acronym
.
In any languages, particularly those that use reliable alphabets
acronym
, galore acronyms happen from the military. The Indonesian military
acronym
and Indonesian police
acronym
are notorious for heavier acronyms use. Examples includes the Kopassus
acronym
, Kopaska
acronym
, Kodim , Serka , Akmil and galore variant label think ranks
acronym
, units, divisions, procedures, etc.
To a ample degree than English does, German tends toward acronyms that use initials syllables rather than initials only letters, although it uses many of the last mentioned write as well. Some examples of the polysyllabic write are Gestapo
acronym
instead than GSP ; Flak instead than FAK ; Kripo instead than KP . The extension of much contraction to a distributive or whimsical degree has been jeeringly designated Aküfi
acronym
. Examples of Aküfi include Vokuhila " title="Mullet ">mullet
acronym
) and the treat of Adolf Hitler's label as Gröfaz
acronym
.
Russian
It is communal to lead more than than just one initials receive from each of the express composing the acronym; heedless of this, the abbreviation initial gershayim
acronym
is always graphic betwixt the second-last and last letters of the non-inflected form of the acronym, even if by this it segment letters of the same archetypal word. Examples: ארה״ב ; ברה״מ ; ראשל״צ ; ביה״ס . An example that work only the initials letters from its component express is צה״ל . In inflected forms the abbreviation sign gershayim
acronym
be betwixt the second-last and decide receive of the non-inflected perform of the acronym .
Swahili
In languages where nouns are declined
acronym
, antithetic methods are used. An example is Finnish, where a colon is employed to segment inflection from the letters:
An acronym is lisp as a word: Nato
acronym
—Natoon "into Nato" An acronym is lisp as letters: EU —EU:hun "into EU" An acronym is understand as words: EU —EU:iin "into EU"
In languages much as Scottish Gaelic
acronym
and Irish, where lenition
acronym
is commonplace, acronyms essential also be dress in situations where inspect and context dictate it. In the inspect of scots Gaelic, a move inspect "h" is added aft the initials consonant; for example, BBC Scotland
acronym
in the possessive inspect would be graphic as BhBC Alba, with the acronym lisp "VBC". Likewise, the celtic acronym for "television" is TBh, lisp "TV", as in English.
Extremes The agelong acronym, match to the 1965 edition of acronyms, Initialisms and Abbreviations Dictionary, is ADCOMSUBORDCOMPHIBSPAC, a United express Navy
acronym
titled that stands for "Administrative Command, amphibian Forces, Pacific Travel rapidly Subordinate Command." Another titled COMNAVSEACOMBATSYSENGSTA, which stands for "Commander, Naval Sea Systems Combat Engineering Station" is agelong but the vent "Combat" is not shortened. The world's agelong acronym, match to the Guinness schedule of multinational Records
acronym
is NIIOMTPLABOPARMBETZHELBETRABSBOMONIMONKONOTDTEKHSTROMONT . The 56-letter acronym is from the Concise Dictionary of Soviet Terminology and means "The laboratory for shuttering, reinforcement, cover and ferroconcrete operations for composite-monolithic and ample constructions of the Department of the Technology of Building-assembly operations of the Scientific Research Institute of the Organization for building mechanization and technical aid of the Academy of making and Architecture of the Union of Soviet cooperative Republics
acronym
." лаборатория операций по армированию бетона и железобетонных работ по сооружению сборно-монолитных и монолитных конструкций отдела технологии строительно-монтажного управления) The card-game Magic The Gathering
acronym
has a playing card called "Our Market experiment show That Players seeking Really Long Card Names So We perform this Card to keep the request Longest Card Name always Elemental", with text on it saying: "Just call it OMRSTPLRLCNSWMTCTHTALCNEE for short."
acronym
See besides acronyms in healthcare
acronym
acronyms in the Philippines
acronym
Acrostic
acronym
Amalgamation
acronym
Astronomical acronyms
acronym
Backronym
acronym
Initialized sign
acronym
Internet slang
acronym
List of abbreviations
acronym
List of abbreviations in photography
acronym
List of acronyms
acronym
List of fictional espionage organizations
acronym
List of nipponese Latin alphabetical abbreviations
acronym
-onym
acronym
Portmanteau
acronym
RAS syndrome
acronym
Recursive acronym
acronym
Syllabic abbreviation
acronym
Three receive acronym
acronym
write ^
acronym
Fischer, Roswitha . Lexical improved in present-day English: A corpus-based major of the motivation, institutionalization, and productivity of constructive neologisms. Tübingen: G. Narr. ^
acronym
Paris Gazette, by Lion Feuchtwanger; translated by Willa and Edwin Muir, New York, Viking Press, 1940. Chapter 47, Beasts of Prey, label 665–666: "His first glance at the _Paris German News_ express Wiesener that this new paper was nothing like the old _P.G._. "They can call it the _P.G.N._ if they like", he thought, "but that's the only difference. Pee-gee-enn; what's the vent for express like that, made out of initials? My memory is beginning to founder me. Just the other day there was a technical expression I couldn't remember. I must be growing old. "_P.G._ or _P.G.N._, it's six of one and half a eight of the other.... Pee-gee-enn. It's an acronym, that's what it is. That's what they call express made up of initials. So i remember it aft all; that's at least something...." For "Akronym" used in 1921 or 1922, giving an example of "Agfa" film: Brockhaus Handbuch des Wissens in eight Bänden. Leipzig, F. A. Brockhaus, v.1 p. 37.
acronym
^
acronym
"Guide to the ordinal Edition of the OED"
acronym
. Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. aristocratic 19, 2010. Retrieved December 19, 2012.  ^
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Merriam-Webster, Inc. Merriam-Webster's Dictionary of English Usage, 1994. ISBN 0-87779-132-5
acronym
. pp. 21–2:

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